Cas cliniques EMDR

L’EMDR est désormais largement reconnu pour le traitement des traumas (e.g., American Psychiatric Association, 2004; Bisson & Andrew, 2007; Bleich et al., 2002; CREST, 2003; DVA/DoD, 2004; Foa et al., 2009; INSERM, 2004; NICE, 2005)

Les applications cliniques de l’EMDR sont basées sur le modèle de traitement adaptatif de l’information  (AIP; see Shapiro, 2001, 2002, 2006, 2007)

On considère la thérapie EMDR comme une thérapie des éléments du vécu qui interviennent à la fois dans les maladies mentales et dans la santé. Grâce à l’élargissement des protocoles standards (Shapiro, 1995, 2001), des applications cliniques supplémentaires ont été développées par des experts et des thérapeutes dans toute une série de spécialités. Peu de recherches contrôlées ont été menées sur ces pratiques nouvelles. C’est d’ailleurs le cas pour les traitements de la plupart de ces troubles, ainsi qu’il ressort clairement d’un rapport d’évaluation du groupe de travail nommé par la Division Clinique de l’American Psychological Association (Chambless, Baker, Baucom, Beutler, Calhoun, Crits-Christoph et al., 1998) : ce rapport révélait qu’une douzaine seulement de troubles, parmi lesquels certaines phobies ou les maux de tête, avaient des traitements reconnus empiriquement pour être efficaces. Il faut ajouter le fait que beaucoup des traitements considérés comme empiriquement validés n’ont pas été évalués par rapport à leur capacité à produire des effets cliniques substantiels à long terme. Vous trouverez des informations complémentaires sur : http://therapyadvisor.com

Si les protocoles de la thérapie EMDR ont été largement examinés par des études contrôlées pour ce qui concerne les SSPT, il faut espérer que ses nouvelles applications feront l’objet de recherches approfondies. Des propositions globales de paramètres à étudier ont déjà été faites (Shapiro, 2001, 2002).

Vous avons réalisé une liste de travaux publiés et de conférences, afin d’aider les chercheurs à identifier les protocoles qu’ils peuvent étudier et les thérapeutes à s’informer leurs nouvelles applications.

De nombreuses conférences ont été enregistrées et sont disponibles auprès des organisateurs. Vous pouvez également contacter les conférenciers de l’association EMDRIA sur le site http://www.emdria.org.

Autre ressource disponible : The Francine Shapiro Library (FSL), développée par Barbara Hensley Ed.D et hébergée par la Northern Kentucky University.  On y trouve un grand nombre d’articles et de recherches sur le modele de traitement adaptatif de l’information (TAI) et l’EMDR. Cette librairie en ligne a un double objectif (1) héberger les documents informatiques concernant le modèle TAI et l’EMDR et (2) proposer une liste exhaustive et actualisée de tous les documents mentionnant le modèle TAI ou l’EMDR. L’adresse du site est  :  http://library.nku.edu/emdr/emdr_data.php 

Les populations étudiées

Des résultats thérapeutiques positifs avec la thérapie EMDR ont été rapportés pour un large éventail de populations. Cependant, comme on l’a noté plus haut, la plupart des troubles cliniques listés n’ont pas de traitement empiriquement validé et il faudrait mener une investigation élargie, avec des études contrôlées, dans toutes les directions (Chambless et al., 1998). Les applications cliniques de la thérapie EMDR sont fondées sur le modèle de traitement des informations (voir Shapiro, 2001, 2002), qui postule que le retraitement des éléments du vécu peut avoir un effet positif sur toute une série de troubles. A ce jour, si de nombreuses études contrôlées ont montré l’efficacité de la thérapie EMDR dans le traitement du syndrome de stress post-traumatique, d’autres applications cliniques sont fondées sur des observations cliniques et demandent d’autres investigations. Depuis la première étude d’efficacité (Shapiro, 1989a), des résultats thérapeutiques positifs ont été rapportés pour toute une série de populations, parmi lesquelles :

1. D’anciens combattants de l’opération Tempête du Désert, de la guerre du Vietnam, de la guerre de Corée et de la 2nd Guerre Mondiale, jusque-là résistants à tout traitement, et qui n’ont plus de flash-back, de cauchemars et autres séquelles de SSPT. (Blore, 1997a; Carlson, Chemtob, Rusnak, & Hedlund, 1996; Carlson, Chemtob, Rusnak, Hedlund, & Muraoka, 1998; Daniels, Lipke, Richardson, & Silver, 1992; Lipke, 2000; Lipke & Botkin, 1992; Russell, 2006, 2008; Russell, Silver, Rogers, & Darnell, 2007; Silver & Rogers, 2001; Silver, Rogers, & Russell, 2008; Thomas & Gafner, 1993; Wesson & Gould, 2009; White, 1998; Young, 1995; Zimmermann, Güse, Barre, Biesold, 2005).

2. Des personnes souffrant de phobies et de crises d’angoisse qui ont montré une réduction rapide de l’angoisse et de la symptomatologie (De Jongh & ten Broeke, 1998; De Jongh, ten Broeke & Renssen, 1999; De Jongh, van den Oord, & ten Broeke, 2002; Doctor, 1994; de Roos, & de Jongh, 2008; Feske & Goldstein, 1997; Fernandez & Feretta, 2007; Goldstein, 1992; Gauvreau, & Bouchard, 2008; Gattinara, 2009; Goldstein & Feske, 1994; Gros & Antony, 2006; Kleinknecht, 1993; Nadler, 1996; Newgent, Paladino, Reynolds, 2006; O’Brien, 1993; Protinsky, Sparks, & Flemke, 2001a; Schurmans, 2007). Some controlled studies of spider phobics have revealed comparatively little benefit from EMDR, (e.g., Muris & Merckelbach, 1997; Muris, Merkelbach, Holdrinet, & Sijsenaar, 1998; Muris, Merckelbach, van Haaften & Nayer, 1997) but evaluations have been confounded by lack of fidelity to the published protocols (see De Jongh et al., 1999; Shapiro, 1999 and Appendix D). One evaluation of panic disorder with agoraphobia (Goldstein, de Beurs, Chambless, & Wilson, 2000) also reported limited results (for comprehensive discussion per Shapiro, 2001, 2002; see also Appendix D).

3. Des victimes de crimes, des officiers de police, des employés travaillant sur les lieux où des actes violents ont été commis, qui ne sont plus perturbés par les séquelles de violences et/ou la nature stressante de leur travail. (Baker & McBride, 1991; Dyregrov, 1993; Jensma, 1999; Kitchiner, 2004; Kitchiner & Aylard, 2002; Kleinknecht & Morgan, 1992; Lansing, Amen, Hanks, Rudy, 2005; McNally & Solomon, 1999; Page & Crino, 1993; Rost, Hofmann & Wheeler, 2009; Shapiro & Solomon, 1995; Solomon, 1995, 1998; Solomon, & Dyregrov, 2000; Wilson, Becker, Tinker, & Logan, 2001).

4. Des personnes délivrées d’un chagrin excessif dû à la perte d’un être cher ou à des décès en service commandé, par exemple des conducteurs de train qui ne sont plus écrasés de culpabilité parce que leur train a tué quelqu’un. (Gattinara, 2009; Lazrove et al., 1998; Puk, 1991a; Shapiro & Solomon, 1995; Solomon, 1994, 1995, 1998; Solomon & Kaufman, 2002;  Solomon & Rando, 2007;Solomon & Shapiro,1997; Sprang, 2001).

5. Des enfants et des adolescents guéris des symptômes liés au traumatisme (Ahmad et al., 2007; Bae, Kim, & Park, 2008; Bronner et al., 2009; Chemtob, Nakashima, Hamada & Carlson, 2002; Cocco & Sharpe, 1993; Datta & Wallace, 1994, 1996; Fernandez, 2007; Fernandez, Gallinari, & Lorenzetti, 2004; Greenwald, 1994, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002; Hensel, 2006, 2009; Jaberghaderi, Greenwald, Rubin, Dolatabadim, & Zand, 2004; Johnson, 1998; Jarero, Artigas, & Hartung, 2006; Korkmazler-Oral & Pamuk, 2002; Kraft, Schepker, Goldbeck, & Fegert, 2006; Lovett, 1999; Maxfield, 2007; Oras et al., 2004; Pellicer, 1993; Puffer, Greenwald & Elrod, 1998; Rodenburg et al., in press; Russell & O’Connor, 2002; Scheck, Schaeffer, & Gillette, 1998; Shapiro, 1991; Soberman, Greenwald, & Rule, 2002; Stewart & Bramson, 2000; Streeck-Fischer, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Tinker & Wilson, 1999 Tufnell, 2005; Wanders, Serra, & de Jongh, 2008; Zaghrout-Hodali, Alissa, & Dodgson, 2008).

6. Des victimes d’agression sexuelle aujourd’hui capables de mener une vie normale et d’avoir des relations amoureuses. (Edmond, Rubin, & Wambach, 1999; Hyer, 1995; Kowal, 2005; Parnell, 1994, 1999; Puk, 1991a; Rothbaum, 1997; Rothbaum, Astin, Marsteller, 2005; Scheck, Schaeffer, & Gillette, 1998; Shapiro, 1989b, 1991, 1994; Wolpe & Abrams, 1991).

7. Des victimes de catastrophes, naturelles ou humaines, capables de reprendre une vie normale. (Chemtob et al, 2002; Colelli, & Patterson, 2008; Fernandez, 2008; Fernandez, et al, 2004; Gelbach, 2008; Grainger, Levin, Allen-Byrd, Doctor, & Lee, 1997; Jarero, Artigas, Mauer, Lopez Cano, & Alcala, 1999; Jayatunge, 2008; Knipe, Hartung, Konuk, Colleli, Keller, & Rogers, 2003; Konuk, Knipe, Eke, Yuksek, Yurtsever, & Ostep, 2006; Shapiro & Laub, 2008; Shusta-Hochberg, 2003; Silver, Rogers, Knipe & Colelli, 2005).

8. Des victimes d’accident, d’opérations chirurgicales ou de brûlures, autrefois handicapées émotionnellement et physiquement, et aujourd’hui capables de reprendre une vie productive (Blore, 1997b; Broad & Wheeler, 2006; Hassard, 1993; McCann, 1992; Puk, 1992; Softic, 2009: Solomon & Kaufman, 1994).

9. Des personnes victimes de dysfonctionnements conjugaux et sexuels, aujourd’hui capables de conserver des relations saines (Bardin, 2004; Capps, 2006; Errebo & Sommers-Flanagan, 2007; Keenan & Farrell, 2000; Gattinara, 2009; Kaslow, Nurse, & Thompson, 2002; Knudsen, 2007; Koedam, 2007; Levin, 1993; Madrid, Skolek & Shapiro, 2006; Moses, 2007; Phillips et al. 2009; Protinsky, Sparks, & Flemke, 2001b; Shapiro, Kaslow, & Maxfield, 2007; Snyder, 1996; Stowasser, 2007; Talan, 2007; Wernik, 1993; Wesselmann & Potter, 2009).

10. Des patients à tous les stades de la dépendance aux psychotropes et des joueurs pathologiques qui présentent maintenant un état stable de guérison et une moindre tendance à la rechute (Amundsen & Kårstad, 2006; Besson, Eap, Rougemont-Buecking, Simon, Nikolov, Bonsack, 2006; Cox & Howard, 2007; Hase, Schallmayer, & Sack, 2008; Henry, 1996; Marich, 2009; Popky, 2005; Ricci, 2006; Ricci et al., 2006; Shapiro & Forrest, 1997; Shapiro, Vogelmann-Sine, & Sine, 1994; Vogelmann-Sine, Sine, Smyth, & Popky, 1998; Zweben & Yeary, 2006).

11. Des personnes atteintes de troubles dissociatifs, qui progressent à un rythme plus rapide que ce qu’on obtient par la thérapie traditionnelle de ces troubles (Cohen, 2009; Fine, 1994; Fine & Berkowitz, 2001; Lazrove, 1994; Lazrove & Fine 1996; Marquis & Puk, 1994; Paulsen, 1995; Rouanzoin, 1994; Twombly, 2000, 2005; Young, 1994).

12. Des hommes et des femmes d’affaires, des artistes, des sportifs, qui ont tiré bénéfice de la thérapie EMDR en tant qu’outil d’amélioration des performances (Barker,  & Barker, 2007; Crabbe, 1996; Foster & Lendl, 1995, 1996; Graham, 2004; Maxfield, 2000).

13. Des personnes souffrant de problèmes somatiques ou de troubles psychosomatiques, y compris de douleurs chroniques, qui ont obtenu un rapide soulagement de la douleur (Bloomgarden, & Calogero, 2008;  Brown, McGoldrick, & Buchanan, 1997; Chemali & Meadows, 2004; Dziegielewski & Wolfe, 2000; Friedberg, 2004; Gattinara, 2009; Grant, 1999; Grant & Threlfo, 2002; Gupta & Gupta, 2002; Kelley, & Selim, 2007; Kneff & Krebs, 2004; Kowal, 2005; Marcus, 2008; Mazzola et al., 2009; McGoldrick, Begum, & Brown, 2008; Ray & Zbik, 2001; Royle, 2008; Russell, 2008a, b; Schneider et al., 2007, 2008; Tinker & Wilson, 2006; Van Loey & Van Son, 2003; Wilensky, 2006; Wilson et al., 2000).

14. Des adultes et adolescents traités pour depressions (Bae, Kim & Park, 2008; Broad & Wheeler, 2006; Gomez, 2008; Hogan, 2001; Manfield, 1998; Protinsky, Sparks,  & Flemke, 2001a; Tanaka, & Inoue, 1999; Uribe, & Ramirez, 2006)

15. Des patients présentant toutes sortes de syndrome de stress post-traumatique et d’autres troubles diagnostiqués et qui ont tiré un bénéfice substantiel de la thérapie EMDR (Allen & Lewis, 1996; Bisson, Ehlers, Matthews, Pilling, Richards, Turner, 2007; Brown  & Shapiro, 2006; Carbone, 2008; Cohn, 1993; Fensterheim, 1996; Forbes, Creamer, & Rycroft, 1994; Gelinas, 2003; Hogberg, Pagani, Sundin, Soares, Aberg-Wistedt, Tarnell, et al, 2007; Kutz, Resnik, & Dekel, 2008; Ironson, et al., 2002; Kim & Choi, 2004; Kitchiner, 1999, 2000; Korn & Leeds, 2002; Lee, et al., 2002; Manfield, 1998; Manfield & Shapiro, 2003; Marcus, Marquis, & Saki, 1997; Marquis, 1991; Maxwell, 2003; McCullough, 2002; McLaughlin et al, 2008; Parnell, 1996; 1997; Pollock, 2000; Power et al., 2002; Protinsky, Sparks, & Flemke, 2001a; Puk,1991b; Raboni, Tufik, & Suchecki, 2006; Renfrey & Spates, 1994; Rittenhouse, 2000; Sandstrom et al., 2008; Schneider, Nabavi, Heuft, 2005; Seidler & Wagner, 2006; Shapiro & Forrest, 1997; Shapiro & Laub, 2008; Spates & Burnette, 1995; Spector & Huthwaite, 1993; Sprang, 2001; van der Kolk, Spinazzola, Blaustein, Hopper, Hopper, Korn, Simpson, 2007; Vaughan, et al., 1994; Vaughan, Wiese, Gold, & Tarrier, 1994; Wilson, Becker, & Tinker, 1995, 1997; Wolpe & Abrams, 1991; Zabukovec, Lazrove & Shapiro, 2000).

Références

Adúriz, M. E., Bluthgen, C., & Knopfler, C. (2009). Helping child flood victims using group EMDR intervention in Argentina: Treatment outcome and gender differences. International Journal of Stress Management, 16, 138-153.

Ahmad A, Larsson B, Sundelin-Wahlsten V. (2007). EMDR treatment for children with PTSD: Results of a  randomized controlled trial. Nord J Psychiatry, 61, 349-54.

American Psychiatric Association (2004).  Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress  Disorder.  Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines.

Amundsen, J. E., & Kårstad, K. (2006). Om bare Jeppe visste.- EMDR og rusbehandling. [Integrating EMDR and the treatment of substance abuse.]. Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening, 43(5), 469.

Allen, J. G., & Lewis, L. (1996). A conceptual framework for treating traumatic memories and its application to EMDR. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 60 (2), 238-263.

Bae, H., Kim, D. & Park, Y.C. (2008). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for adolescent depression. Psychiatry Investigation, 5, 60-65.

Baker, N. & McBride, B. (1991, August). Clinical applications of EMDR in a law enforcement environment: Observations of the psychological service unit of the l.a. county sheriff’s department. Paper presented at the Police Psychology (Division 18, Police & Public Safety Sub-section) Mini-Convention at the American Psychological Association annual convention, San Francisco, CA.

Bardin, A. (2004). EMDR within a family perspective. Journal of Family Psychotherapy, 15, 47-61.

    • EMDR is a method used to help the individual trauma victim process the psychological aftereffects of trauma (PTSD). The effects of traumatic experiences, however, spread throughout the victim’s family. The case presented here describes the treatment from three perspectives: individual, family, and social context (eco-social). EMDR, used with a nine-year-old stabbing victim, was integrated into wider therapeutic work within the family. This integration widened the focus from the IP to other members of the system, allowing the use of EMDR to “spread” to four out of the five family members. The effects of the trauma on the family and its members were most effectively treated by a combination of individually and systemically oriented interventions.

Barker, R. T., & Barker, S. B. (2007). The use of EMDR in reducing presentation anxiety. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 1(2), 100-108.

Besson, J., Eap, C., Rougemont-Buecking, A., Simon, O., Nikolov, C., Bonsack, C.  (2006). [Addictions]. Revue Médicale Suisse, 2(47), 9-13.

    • This year reviews on the addictions emphasizes five aspects, on a bio-psycho-social perspective: (1) The relationship between methadone and cardiotoxicity. (2) The introduction of Eye Movement Desensibilization and Reprocessing (EMDR). (3) The apparition of a possible specific pharmacotherapy for excessive gambling. (4) A better knowledge of the relationship between cannabis and psychoses. (5) Resistance to treatment in the doctor-patient relationship.

Bisson, J., & Andrew, M. (2007). Psychological treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD003388. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003388.pub3.

Bisson, J. I., Ehlers, A., Matthews, R., Pilling, S., Richards, D., & Turner, S. (2007). Psychological treatments for chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 190, 97-104.

Bleich, A., Kotler, M., Kutz, I., & Shalev, A.  (2002). A position paper of the (Israeli) National Council for Mental Health: Guidelines for the assessment and professional intervention with terror victims in the hospital and in the community. Jerusalem, Israel.

Blore, D. C. (1997a). Reflections on “a day when the whole world seemed to be darkened”. Changes: An International Journal of Psychology and Psychiatry, 15, 89-95.

Blore, D. C. (1997b). Use of EMDR to treat morbid jealousy: A case study. British Journal of Nursing, 6, 984-988.

Bloomgarden, A., & Calogero, R. M. (2008). A randomized experimental test of the efficacy of EMDR treatment on negative body image in eating disorder inpatients. Eat Disord, 16(5), 418-427.

Broad, R. D., & Wheeler, K. (2006). An adult with childhood medical trauma treated with Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy and EMDR: A case study. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 42(2), 95-105.

    • PROBLEM. Adverse childhood experiences have been found to be a strong predictor of emotional and physical problems in adulthood. However, the long-term sequelae for children who have suffered critical illness and exposure to invasive medical procedures are less well documented. METHODS. This is a case study of an adult client who sought treatment for depression and attention deficit disorder. The psychotherapy treatment is discussed and the use of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is described targeting a memory of a medical trauma resulting from a tonsillectomy when the client was 8 years old. CONCLUSIONS. Significant healing outcomes were attained as a result of the therapy, i.e., decreased depression, less hypervigilance, and increased ability to concentrate, which resulted in the discontinuation of medication for depression and ADHD as well as significant improvement in overall functioning.

Bronner, M. B., Beer, R., Jozine van Zelm van Eldik, M., Grootenhuis, M. A., & Last, B. F. (2009). Reducing acute stress in a 16-year old using trauma-focused cognitive behaviour therapy and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 12, 170-174.

    • OBJECTIF : évaluer les effets de la thérapie cognitive comportementale centrée sur le traumatisme (TCC-CT) et de la désensibilisation et du retraitement par les mouvements oculaires (EMDR) pour le traitement d’un stress aigu chez une adolescente. MÉTHODE : une combinaison de TCC-CT et d’EMDR a été administrée à une jeune fille de 16 ans souffrant de souvenirs perturbants, d’angoisse et de flashbacks. Pour mesurer l’efficacité de ce traitement combiné, on s’est servi de la Children’s Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES-13). RÉSULTAT : les réactions de stress aigu ont chuté considérablement après le traitement et sont demeurées stables. Les scores au CRIES-13 ont montré une réduction substantielle des notes de stress. La jeune fille ne rapportait plus de flashbacks concernant sa blessure, de difficultés de sommeil ni de souvenirs perturbateurs récurrents. CONCLUSION : cette étude de cas illustre l’efficacité potentielle une combinaison de TCC-CT et d’EMDR chez des patients présentant des réactions de stress aigu. Il serait intéressant que des recherches futures évaluent l’efficacité de ce traitement combiné sur un échantillon important d’enfants. Source : Newsletter EMDRIA – septembre 2009 – Traduction : EMDR France

Brown, K. W., McGoldrick, T., & Buchanan, R. (1997). Body dysmorphic disorder: Seven cases treated with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Behavioural & Cognitive Psychotherapy, 25, 203-207.

Brown, S. & Shapiro, F. (2006).  EMDR in the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Clinical Case Studies, 5, 403-420.

    • Individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) usually experience signifi  cant impairment in their ability to function. Impulsivity, affect instability, interpersonal diffi  culties, and identity problems are hallmark features of this disorder, frequently leading to suicidal and parasuicidal behaviors. Although BPD has traditionally been considered chronic and enduring, recent research has indicated that it can remit over time and that psychotherapy can accelerate this process. The etiology of BPD has been associated with childhood abuse and inadequate attachment. Given the signifi  cance of childhood abuse and trauma, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), a recognized trauma therapy, may be a reasonable treatment option for BPD. The positive effects noted in the following case illustrate EMDR’s utility in the treatment of BPD and indicate that further controlled studies are warranted.

Capps, F. (2006). Combining Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing With Gestalt Techniques in Couples Counseling. Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 14(1), 49.

    • Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is gaining acceptance as efficacious treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder for individuals but not for couples. This article reports three case studies of couples in which EMDR is combined with Gestalt therapy in a single session to resolve relational trauma effects, increase empathy and awareness in the supportive partner, and deepen intimacy within the couple. Case studies are described, and implications for research and clinical applications are discussed.

Carbone, D. J. (2008). Treatment of gay men for post-traumatic stress disorder resulting from social ostracism and ridicule: Cognitive behavior therapy and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing approaches. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37, 305–316.

Carlson, J. G., Chemtob, C. M., Rusnak, K., & Hedlund, N. L. (1996). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing treatment for combat PTSD. Psychotherapy, 33, 104-113.

Carlson, J. G., Chemtob, C. M., Rusnak, K., Hedlund, N. L., & Muraoka, M. Y. (1998). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing treatment for combat related posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11(1), 3-24.

Chemali, Z. & Meadows, M. (2004). The use of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in the treatment of psychogenic seizures. Epilepsy & Behavior, 5, 784-787.

Chambless, D. L., Baker, M. J., Baucom, D. H., Beutler, L. E., Calhoun, K. S., Crits-Christoph, P., et al. (1998). Update on empirically validated therapies. The Clinical Psychologist, 51, 3-16.

Chemtob, C. M., Nakashima, J. Hamada, R. S., & Carlson, J. G. (2002). Brief-treatment for elementary school children with disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder: A field study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 99-112.

Cocco, N. & Sharpe, L. (1993). An auditory variant of eye movement desensitization in a case of childhood post- traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 24, 373-377.

Cohen, A. (2009). Treatment of dissociation with EMDR when war interrupts the process: The integration of EMDR with e-mail therapy. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3, 50-56.

Cohn, L. (1993). Art psychotherapy and the new eye treatment desensitization and reprocessing (EMD/R) method, an integrated approach. In E. Dishup (Ed.), California Art Therapy Trends (pp. 275-290). Chicago, IL: Magnolia Street Publisher.

Colelli, G., & Patterson, B. (2008). Three case reports illustrating the use of the protocol for recent traumatic events following the world trade center terrorist attack. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2, 114-123.

Cox, R. P., & Howard, M. D. (2007). Utilization of EMDR in the treatment of sexual addiction: A case study. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 14(1), 1.

Crabbe, B. (1996, November). Can eye-movement therapy improve your riding. Dressage Today, 28-33.

CREST (2003). The management of post traumatic stress disorder in adults.  A publication of the Clinical Resource Efficiency Support Team of the Northern Ireland Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety, Belfast.

Daniels, N., Lipke, H., Richardson, R., & Silver, S. (1992, October). Vietnam veterans’ treatment programs using eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Symposium presented at the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies annual convention, Los Angeles, CA.

Datta, P. C. & Wallace, J. (1994, May). Treatment of sexual traumas of sex offenders using eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Paper presented at the 11th Annual Symposium in Forensic Psychology, San Francisco.

Datta, P. C. & Wallace, J. (1996, November). Enhancement of victim empathy along with reduction of anxiety and increase of positive cognition of sex offenders after treatment with EMDR. Paper presented at the EMDR Special Interest Group at the Annual Convention of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, New York.

De Jongh, A. & Ten Broeke, E. (1998). Treatment of choking phobia by targeting traumatic memories with EMDR: A case study. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 5, 264-269.

De Jongh, A., Ten Broeke, E., and Renssen, M. R. (1999). Treatment of specific phobias with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): Protocol, empirical status, and conceptual issues. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 13, 69-85.

De Jongh, A., van den Oord, H. J. M., & Ten Broeke, E. (2002). Efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of specific phobias: Four single-case studies on dental phobia. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 1489-1503.

Department of Veterans Affairs & Department of Defense (2004). VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Post-Traumatic Stress. Washington, DC: Veterans Health Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs and Health Affairs, Department of Defense. Office of Quality and Performance publication 10Q-CPG/PTSD-04.

de Roos, C., & de Jongh, A. (2008). EMDR treatment of children and adolescents with a choking phobia. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(3), 201-211.

Doctor, R. (1994, March). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: A clinical and research examination with anxiety disorders. Paper presented at the 14th annual meeting of the Anxiety Disorders Association of America, Santa Monica, CA.

Dyregrov, A. (1993). EMDR-nymetode for tramebehandling. Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening, 30, 975-981.

Dziegielewski, S. & Wolfe, P. (2000). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) as a time-limited treatment intervention for body image disturbance and self-esteem: A single subject case study design. Journal of Psychotherapy in Independent Practice, 1, 1-16.

Edmond, T., Rubin, A., & Wambach, K. G. (1999). The effectiveness of EMDR with adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Social Work Research, 23, 103-116.

Errebo, N., & Sommers-Flanagan, R. (2007). EMDR and emotionally focused couple therapy for war veteran couples. In F. Shapiro, F. W. Kaslow & L. Maxfield (Eds.), Handbook of EMDR and family therapy processes. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.

Fensterheim, H. (1996). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing with complex personality pathology: An integrative therapy. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 6, 27-38.

Fernandez, I. (2007). EMDR as treatment of post-traumatic reactions: A field study on child victims of an earthquake. Educational and Child Psychology. Special Issue: Therapy, 24, 65-72.

Fernandez, I. (2008). EMDR after a critical incident:  Treatment of a tsunami survivor with acute posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(2), 156-159.

Fernandez, I., & Faretta, E. (2007). EMDR in the treatment of panic disorder with agoraphobia. Clinical Case Studies, 6(1), 44-63.

Fernandez, I., Gallinari, E., & Lorenzetti, A. (2004). A school-based EMDR intervention for children who witnessed the Pirelli Building airplane crash in Milan, Italy. Journal of Brief Therapy, 2, 129-136.

Feske, U. & Goldstein, A. (1997). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing treatment for panic disorder: A controlled outcome and partial dismantling study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 36, 1026-1035.

Fine, C. G. (1994, June). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for dissociative disorders. Presentation at the Eastern Regional Conference on Abuse and Multiple Personality. Alexandria, VA.

Fine, C. & Berkowitz, A. (2001). The wreathing protocol: The imbrication of hypnosis and EMDR in the treatment of dissociative identity disorder and other dissociative responses. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 43, 275-290.

Foa, E.B., Keane, T.M., Friedman, M.J., & Cohen, J.A. (2009). Effective treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies New York: Guilford Press.

Forbes, D., Creamer, M., & Rycroft, P. (1994). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in posttraumatic stress disorder: A pilot study using assessment measures. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 25, 113-120.

Foster, S. & Lendl, J. (1995). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Initial applications for enhancing performance in athletes. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 7 (Supplement), 63.

Foster, S. & Lendl, J. (1996). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Four case studies of a new tool for executive coaching and restoring employee performance after setbacks. Consulting Psychology Journal, 48, 155-161.

Friedberg, F. (2004). Eye movement desensitization in fibromyalgia: A pilot study. Complementary Therapies in Nursing and Midwidery, 10,  245-249.

    • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of eye movement desensitization (EMD) for the relief of pain, fatigue and anxiety and depression in fibromyalgia patients. Six Caucasian female patients (mean age=43.2 yr) participated in two treatment sessions. Outcome assessments included the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Fatigue Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory. In-session process measures included thermal biofeedback monitoring and subjective units of discomfort ratings of pain, stress, and fatigue. Four out of six subjects were considered treatment responders. Thermal biofeedback monitoring revealed an average increase in hand temperature of 5.4 degrees indicating a relaxation effect. At treatment termination, average scores decreased on the measures of anxiety (28.6%), depression (29.9%), fibromyalgia impact (12.6%), and fatigue (11.5%). At the 3-month follow-up assessment, total reductions in average scores from pre-treatment baseline reflected further improvements on measures of anxiety (45.8%), depression (31.6%), fibromyalgia impact (19.2%), and fatigue (26.7%). Because EMD produced a somewhat automatic relaxation response with minimal patient participation, it may be especially useful when standard relaxation techniques fail.

Gattinara, P.C. (2009). Working with EMDR in chronic incapacitating diseases: The experience of a neuromuscular diseases center. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3, 169-177

Gauvreau, P., & Bouchard, S. P. (2008). Preliminary evidence for the efficacy of EMDR in treating generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2, 26-40.

Gelbach, R. (2008). Trauma, research, and EMDR: A disaster responder’s wish list. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2, 146-155.

Gelinas, D. J. (2003). Integrating EMDR into phase-oriented treatment for trauma. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 4, 91-135.

Goldstein, A. (1992, August). Treatment of panic and agoraphobia with EMDR: Preliminary data of the Agoraphobia and Anxiety Treatment Center, Temple University. Paper presented at the Fourth World Congress on Behavior Therapy, Queensland, Australia.

Goldstein, A. J., de Beurs, E., Chambless, D. L., & Wilson, K. A. (2000). EMDR for panic disorder with agoraphobia: comparison with waiting-list and credible attention-placebo control condition. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 947-956.

Goldstein, A. & Feske, U. (1994). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for panic disorder: A case series. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 8, 351-362.

Gomez, A. (2008, September). Beyond PTSD: Treating depression in children and adolescents using EMDR. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the EMDR International Association, Phoenix, AZ.

Graham, L ( 2004) Traumatic Swimming  Events Reprocessed with   EMDR.  www.Thesportjournal.org , 7 (1)1-5.

Grainger, R. D., Levin, C., Allen-Byrd, L., Doctor, R. M., & Lee, H. (1997). An empirical evaluation of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) with survivors of a natural disaster. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 10, 665-671.

Grant, M. (1999). Pain control with EMDR. New Hope, PA: EMDR Humanitarian Assistance Program.

Grant, M., & Threlfo, C. (2002). EMDR in the treatment of chronic pain. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 1505-1520.

Greenwald, R. (1994). Applying eye movement desensitization and reprocessing to the treatment of traumatized children: Five case studies. Anxiety Disorders Practice Journal, 1, 83-97.

Greenwald, R. (1999). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in child and adolescent psychotherapy. New Jersey, Jason Aronson Press.

Greenwald, R. (1998). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): New hope for children suffering from trauma and loss. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 3, 279-287.

Greenwald, R. (2000). A trama-focused individual therapy approach for adolescents with conduct disorder.  International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 44, 146-163.

Greenwald, R. (2002). Motivation-adaptive skills-trauma resolution (MASTR) therapy for adolescents with conduct problems: An open trial. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment, and Trauma, 6, 237-261.

Gros, D. F., & Antony, M. M. (2006). The assessment and treatment of specific phobias: a review. Current Psychiatry Reports, 8(4), 298-303.

    • Specific phobia is one of the most common and easily treated mental disorders. In this review, empirically supported assessment and treatment procedures for specifi c phobia are discussed. Exposure-based treatments in particular are highlighted given their demonstrated effectiveness for this condition. The format and characteristics of exposure-based treatment and predictors of treatment response are outlined to provide recommendations for maximizing outcome. In addition, several other treatments for specifi c phobia are reviewed and critiqued, including cognitive therapy, virtual reality, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, applied tension, and pharmacologic treatments. The review concludes with a discussion of future directions for research.

Gupta, M., & Gupta, A. (2002). Use of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of dermatologic disorders. Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery, 6, 415-421.

Hase, M., Schallmayer, S., & Sack, M. (2008). EMDR reprocessing of the addiction memory: Pretreatment, posttreatment, and 1-month follow-up. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(3), 170-179.

Hassard, A. (1993). Eye movement desensitization of body image. Behavioural Psychotherapy, 21, 157-160.

Henry, S. L. (1996). Pathological gambling: Etiological considerations and treatment efficacy of eye movement desensitization/reprocessing. Journal of Gambling Studies, 12, 395-405.

Hensel, T. (2006). Effektivität von EMDR bei psychisch traumatisierten Kindern und Jugendlichen. [Effectiveness of EMDR with psychologically traumatized children and adolescents.]. Kindheit und Entwicklung, 15(2), 107.

    • EMDR (eye movement desensitization and reprocessing) has proved to be an independent, effective, and empirically validated approach for the treatment of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults. This work provides an overview of the status of research into the use of EMDR in traumatized children and adolescents. The available controlled randomized studies are summarized and assessed for their methodistic value. The empirically supported and effective treatment is described. The results show – albeit on a narrow empirical basis – that EMDR, when used in children and adolescents, demonstrates a comparable effectiveness in symptom reduction and effi  ciency (limited treatment duration) to that observed in adults. Issues relating to the integration of the treatment into the existing care structure are discussed.

Hensel, T. (2009). EMDR with children and adolescents after single-incident trauma: An intervention study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3, 2-9.

Hogan, W. A. (2001, August). The comparative effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of depression. Indiana State University. AAT 3004753.

Hogberg, G., Pagani, M., Sundin, O., Soares, J., Aberg-Wistedt, A., Tarnell, B., et al. (2007). On treatment with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder in public transportation workers – A randomized controlled trial. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 61(1), 54-61.

Hyer, L. (1995). Use of EMDR in a “dementing” PTSD survivor. Clinical Gerontologist, 16, 70-73.

INSERM (2004). Psychotherapy: An evaluation of three approaches. French National Institute of Health and Medical Research, Paris, France.

Ironson, G. I., Freund, B., Strauss, J. L., & Williams, J. (2002). A comparison of two treatments for traumatic stress: A pilot study of EMDR and prolonged exposure. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 113-128.

Jaberghaderi, N., Greenwald, R., Rubin, A., Dolatabadim, S., & Zand, S. O. (2004). A comparison of CBT and EMDR for sexually abused Iranian girls. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 11, 358-368.

    • Fourteen randomly assigned Iranian girls ages 12-13 years who had been sexually abused received up to 12 sessions of CBT or EMDR treatment. Assessment of post-traumatic stress symptoms and problem behaviours was completed at pre-treatment and 2 weeks post-treatment. Both treatments showed large effect sizes on the post-traumatic symptom outcomes, and a medium effect size on the behaviour outcome, all statistically significant. A non-significant trend on self-reported post-traumatic stress symptoms favoured EMDR over CBT. Treatment efficiency was calculated by dividing change scores by number of sessions; EMDR was significantly more efficient, with large effect sizes on each outcome. Limitations include small N , single therapist for each treatment condition, no independent verification of treatment fidelity, and no long-term follow-up. These findings suggest that both CBT and EMDR can help girls to recover from the effects of sexual abuse, and that structured trauma treatments can be applied to children in Iran.

Jarero, I., Artigas, L., & Hartung, J. (2006). EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol: A Postdisaster Trauma Intervention for Children and Adults. Traumatology, 12(2), 121-129.

    • A model is described for using an EMDR group intervention for children and adults traumatized by natural disasters in several Latin American countries. To exemplify the application of the model, one formally measured field study and nine pilot projects are described. The EMDR-IGTP was inspired by the overwhelming requests for mental health attention following hurricane Pauline in 1997 (Artigas, Jarero, Mauer, López Cano, & Alcalá, 2000). It was developed along a psychotherapy integration model, in this case the group therapy model for trauma victims integrated with the EMDR model originally intended for use in individual treatment. Designed initially for work with children, the EMDR-IGTP has also been found suitable for group work with adults. The protocol is structured within a play therapy format and has been used with disaster victims aged 5 to 50+. From 1998 to 2004, two formally measure field studies have been conducted with child victims of flooding in Argentina and México and nine pilot field studies in different Latin America countries after natural disasters. With modifications, with children who witnessed a plane crash in Milan (Fernandez et al., 2004), with children who survived the 1999 earthquakes in Turkey (Korkmazlar-Oral & Pamuk, 2002), with Kosovar-Albanian refugee children in Germany (Wilson, Tinker, Hoffman, Becker, & Marshall, 2000) and with children from Thailand who survive the December, 2004 Tsunami (Birnbaum, A., personal communication).

Jarero, I., Artigas, L., Mauer, M., Lopez Cano, T., & Alcala, N. (1999, November). Children’s post traumatic stress after natural disasters: Integrative treatment protocols. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Miami, FL.

Jayatunge, R. M. (2008). Combating tsunami disaster through EMDR. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(2), 140-145.

Jensma, J. (1999). Critical incident intervention with missionaries: A comprehensive approach. Journal of Psychology & Theology, 27, 130-138.

Johnson, K. (1998). Trauma in the Lives of Children. Alemeda, CA: Hunter House.

Kaslow, F. W., Nurse, A. R., & Thompson, P. (2002). EMDR in conjunction with family systems therapy. In F. Shapiro (Ed.), EMDR as an integrative psychotherapy approach: Experts of diverse orientations explore the paradigm prism (pp. 289-318). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Keenan, P. & Farrell, D. (2000). Treating morbid jealousy with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing utilizing cognitive inter-weave: A case report. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 13, 175-189.

Kelley, S. D. M., & Selim, B. (2007). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in the psychological treatment of trauma-based psychogenic non-epileptic seizures. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 14(2), 135.

Kim, D., & Choi, J. (2004). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing for Disorder of Extreme Stress: A case report. Journal of the Korean Neuropsychiatric Association, 43(6), 760-763. (Korean)

    •  A chronic psychological disorder is often encountered in adult survivors of severe and repeated child abuse. We report a case of successful Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) treatment in a multiply traumatized survivor whose previous treatments with psychotropic medication and supportive psychotherapy were unsuccessful. A series of consecutive six weekly sessions of EMDR were given. The patient completed Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Dissociative Experiences Scale. State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Impact of Event Scale-Revised at four points; at two months and a week before EMDR, a week and six months after EMDR. After EMDR, the patient improved on all the measures of scales. These gains were maintained at six months after the termination of treatment. This case suggests a possible application of EMDR with for chronic difficult-to-treat post traumatic conditions.

Kitchiner N.J.  (1999) Freeing the imprisoned mind: Practice Forensic Care.  Mental Health Care, 21, 12, p420-424.

Kitchiner N.J.  (2000) Using Eye Movement Desensitisation Reprocessing (EMDR) to treat post-traumatic stress disorder in a prison setting.  British Journal of Community Nursing, 5, 1, 26-31.

Kitchiner N.J. (2004) Psychological treatment of three urban fire fighters with post-traumatic stress disorder using eye movement desensitisation reprocessing  (EMDR) therapy. Journal of Complimentary Therapy, 10, 186-193.

    • Fire fighters are at increased risk of developing mental health problems due to the nature of their work, which can sometimes be extremely traumatic. Arranging for immediate access to mental health specialists can often take a protracted time to arrange, leading to the individual remaining disabled and off work. The South Wales fire and rescue service have responded to this challenge and formed a partnership with their local NHS traumatic stress service. This has enabled fire fighters to receive early psychological assessment and treatment from a nurse therapist trained in cognitive behaviour therapy or referred to a consultant liaison psychiatrist. This paper will describe 3 cases which all suffered with PTSD and were treated via the partnership with a controversial therapy EMDR.

Kitchiner, N. & Aylard, P. (2002). Psychological treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: A single case study of a UK police office. Mental Health Practice, 5, 34-38.

Kleinknecht, R. A. (1993). Rapid treatment of blood and injection phobias with eye movement desensitization. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 24, 211-217.

Kleinknecht, R. A. & Morgan, M.P. (1992). Treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 23, 43-50.

Kneff, J. C. & Krebs, K. (2004). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR): Another helpful mind-body technique to treat GI problems. Gastroenterology Nursing, 27(6), 286-287.

Knipe, J., Hartung, J., Konuk, E., Colleli, G., Keller, M., & Rogers, S. (2003, September). EMDR Humanitarian Assistance Programs: Outcome research, models of training, and service delivery in New York, Latin America, Turkey, and Indonesia. Symposium presented at the annual meeting of the EMDR International Association, Denver, CO.

Koedam, W. S. (2007). Sexual trauma in dysfunctional marriages: integrating structural therapy and EMDR. In F. Shapiro, F. W. Kaslow & L. Maxfield (Eds.), Handbook of EMDR and family therapy processes (pp. p. 223-242). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.

Konuk, E., Knipe, J., Eke, I., Yuksek, H., Yurtsever, A., & Ostep, S. (2006). The Effects of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Therapy on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Survivors of the 1999 Marmara, Turkey, Earthquake. International Journal of Stress Management, 13(3), 291.

    • As part of a program of response to the 1999 Marmara, Turkey, earthquake, an estimated 1500 trauma victims with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were treated in tent cities with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). A field study evaluating a representative group of 41 participants with diagnosed PTSD indicated that a mean of five 90-minute sessions was sufficient to eliminate symptoms in 92.7% of those treated, with reduction in symptoms in the remaining participants. Significant reductions occurred between the Pre- and Post-treatment PTSD Symptom Scale-Self-Report version (PSS-SR), Total Scores and all Subscales. These gains were maintained at 6-month Follow-up. The same pattern of recovery was observed regardless of the use or non-use of psychotropic medication at the time of intake.

Korkmazler-Oral, U. & Pamuk, S. (2002). Group EMDR with child survivors of the earthquake in Turkey. Association for Child Psychiatry and Psychology, Occasional Paper No. 19, 47-50.

Korn, D. L. & Leeds, A. M. (2002). Preliminary evidence of efficacy for EMDR resource development and installation in the stabilization phase of treatment of complex posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(12), 1465-1487.

Kowal, J. A. (2005). QEEG analysis of treating PTSD and bulimia nervosa using EMDR. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(Part 4), 114-115.

Knudsen, N. (2007). Integrating EMDR and Bowen theory in treating chronic relationship dysfunction. In F. Shapiro, F. W. Kaslow & L. Maxfield (Eds.), Handbook of EMDR and family therapy processes (pp. p. 169-186). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.

Kraft, S., Schepker, R., Goldbeck, L., & Fegert, J. M. (2006). Behandlung der posttraumatischen Belastungsstörung bei Kindern und Jugendlichen. Eine Übersicht empirischer Wirksamkeitsstudien. [Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents–A review of treatment outcome studies.]. Nervenheilkunde: Zeitschrift für interdisziplinaere Fortbildung., 25(9), 709.

Kutz, I., Resnik, V., & Dekel, R. (2008). The effect of single-session modified EMDR on acute stress syndromes. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(3), 190-200.

Lansing, K., Amen, D. G., Hanks, C., & Rudy, L. (2005). High-resolution brain SPECT imaging and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in police officers with PTSD. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 17(4), 526-532.

    • Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) has been shown to be an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this study, the authors evaluated the effectiveness and physiological effects of EMDR in police officers involved with on-duty shootings and who had PTSD. Six police officers involved with on-duty shootings and subsequent delayed-onset PTSD were evaluated with standard measures, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, and high-resolution brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging before and after treatment. All police officers showed clinical improvement and marked reductions in the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale Score (PDS). In addition, there were decreases in the left and right occipital  lobe, left parietal lobe, and right precentral frontal lobe as well as significant increased perfusion in the left inferior frontal gyrus. In our study EMDR was an effective treatment for PTSD in this police officer group, showing both clinical and brain imaging changes.

Lazrove, S. (1994, November). Integration of fragmented dissociated traumatic memories using EMDR. Paper presented at the 10th annual meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Chicago, IL.

Lazrove, S. & Fine, C.G. (1996). The use of EMDR in patients with dissociative identity disorder. Dissociation, 9, 289-299.

Lazrove, S., Triffleman, E., Kite, L., McGlasshan, T., & Rounsaville, B. (1998). An open trial of EMDR as treatment for chronic PTSD. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 69¸ 601–608.

Lee, C., Gavriel, H., Drummond, P., Richards, J., & Greenwald, R. (2002). Treatment of PTSD: Stress inoculation training with prolonged exposure compared to EMDR. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 1071-1089.

Levin, C. (July/Aug. 1993). The enigma of EMDR. Family Therapy Networker, 75-83.

Lipke, H. (2000). EMDR and psychotherapy integration: Theoretical and clinical suggestions with focus on traumatic stress. New York: CRC Press.

Lipke, H. & Botkin, A. (1992). Brief case studies of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychotherapy, 29, 591-595.

Lovett, J. (1999). Small wonders: Healing childhood trauma with EMDR. NY: The Free Press.

Madrid, A., Skolek, S., & Shapiro, F. (2006) Repairing failures in bonding through EMDR.  Clinical Case Studies. 5, 271-286.

    • Maternal-infant bonding is an intense emotional tie between mother and infant that often begins during pregnancy and continues after birth. Prolonged physical separation from one’s infant or traumatic interference can sometimes impede this process, leading to a lack of bonding. Whereas many medical procedures and illnesses can cause mother and child to become separated immediately after birth and affect bonding, other causes of emotional separation may be somewhat more diffi  cult to identify. Nevertheless, maternal trauma has been identifi  ed as one such form of emotional separation that can interfere with bonding. This article illustrates the application of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) for addressing bonding diffi  culties related to trauma issues. EMDR is an integrative psychotherapy that uses a standardized eight-phase approach to treatment and is a well-accepted treatment for trauma. Although more research is needed, this case suggests that EMDR may be an appropriate and effi  cient treatment for bonding diffi  culties.

Manfield, P. (Ed.). (1998). Extending EMDR. New York: Norton.

Manfield, P. (1998). Filling the void: Resolution of a major depression. In P. Manfield (Ed.), Extending EMDR: A casebook of innovative applications, (1st ed.) (pp. 113-137). New York: W. W. Norton. xii, 292 pp.

Manfield, P. & Shapiro, F. (2003). The application of EMDR to the treatment of personality disorders. In J. F. Magnavita (Ed.) Handbook of Personality: Theory and Practice. New York: Wiley.

Marcus, S. V. (2008). Phase 1 of integrated EMDR: An abortive treatment for migraine headaches. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2, 15-25.

Marcus, S. V., Marquis, P., & Saki, C. (1997). Controlled study of treatment of PTSD using EMDR in an HMO setting. Psychotherapy, 34, 307-315.

Marich, J. (2009). EMDR in the addiction continuing care process: Case study of a cross-addicted female’s treatment and recovery. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3, 98-106.

    • Résumé : Il a été suggéré dans la littérature, depuis 1994, que l’EMDR pouvait représenter un adjuvant efficace au processus de traitement des toxicomanies ; cependant, les études de suivi dans ce domaine ont été peu fréquentes. La présente étude de cas d’une femme présentant des addictions croisées comprend un exposé du cas, illustrant la manière dont l’EMDR a été utilisée dans le processus continu des soins, et une interview phénoménologique semi-structurée, conduite à six mois de suivi. Avant le traitement décrit ici, la participante avait déjà été traitée douze fois par des approches traditionnelles, mais n’avait jamais été capable de rester sobre plus de quatre mois de suite. Après l’EMDR, elle a rapporté 18 mois de sobriété et d’importants changements dans les domaines de la vie courante. L’interview phénoménologique a révélé six thèmes critiques, autour de l’addiction et du processus de guérison, qui peuvent éclairer les cliniciens qui traitent des addictions et des traumatismes simultanés. Source : Newsletter EMDRIA – septembre 2009 – Traduction : EMDR France

Marquis, J. N. (1991). A report on seventy-eight cases treated by eye movement desensitization. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 22, 187-192.

Marquis, J. N., and Puk, G. (1994, November). Dissociative identity disorder: A common sense and cognitive-behavioral view. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, San Diego, CA.

Maxfield, L. (2007). Integrative Treatment of Intrafamilial Child Sexual Abuse. In F. Shapiro, F. W. Kaslow & L. Maxfield (Eds.), Handbook of EMDR and family therapy processes (pp. p. 344-364). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.

Maxfield, L. (2000) Single session treatment of test anxiety with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) International Journal of Stress Management, 7, 87-10.

Maxwell, J.P. (2003). The imprint of childhood physical and emotional abuse: A case study on the use of EMDR to address anxiety and lack of self-esteem. Journal of Family Violence, 18, 281-293.

Mazzola, A., Calcagno, M.L., Goicochea, M.T., Pueyrredòn, H., Leston, J.  & Salvat, F. (2009).  EMDR in the treatment of chronic pain.  Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3, 66-79.

    • Résumé : La douleur chronique peut significativement réduire la qualité de la vie, engendrant dépression, anxiété et perturbations du sommeil ; elle peut amener des processus neuroplastiques qui influencent la modulation de la douleur. La présente étude a investigué le traitement EMDR de 38 patients souffrant de douleurs chroniques, en douze séances hebdomadaires de 90 minutes. Une batterie de questionnaires auto-administrés, destinés à évaluer la qualité de vie, l’intensité de la douleur et le niveau de la dépression des patients, a été administrée avant et après le traitement pour obtenir une évaluation objective des résultats de celui-ci. Le Structured Clinical Interview for DSM a été administré avant le traitement pour identifier les traits de personnalité des participants qui pouvaient influencer leur perception de la douleur. Les patients ont présenté une amélioration statistiquement significative, par rapport au point de départ, après douze semaines de thérapie EMDR. Nos résultats suggèrent que l’EMDR est un outil efficace dans le traitement psychologique de la douleur chronique, qui produit une réduction des sensations douloureuses, des affects négatifs liés à la douleur, et des niveaux d’anxiété et de dépression. Nous examinons les théories pouvant expliquer les mécanismes par lesquels l’EMDR obtient ces effets. Les résultats étaient cohérents avec la prémisse sous-jacente à l’EMDR, qui postulent l’effet important des émotions sur la perception de la douleur. Source : Newsletter EMDRIA – septembre 2009 – Traduction : EMDR France

McCann, D.L. (1992). Post-traumatic stress disorder due to devastating burns overcome by a single session of eye movement desensitization. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 23, 319-323.

McCullough, L. (2002). Exploring change mechanisms in EMDR applied to “small t trauma” in short term dynamic psychotherapy: Research questions and speculations. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 1465-1487.

McGoldrick, T., Begum, M., & Brown, K. W. (2008). EMDR and olfactory reference syndrome: A case series. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(1), 63-68.

McLaughlin, D. F., McGowan, I. W., Paterson, M. C., & Miller, P. W. (2008). Cessation of deliberate self harm following eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing: A case report. Cases J, 1(1), 177.

McNally, V.J. & Solomon, R.M. (1999). The FBI’s critical incident stress management program. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, February, 20-26

Moses, M. (2007). Enhancing attachments: conjoint couple therapy. In F. Shapiro, F. W. Kaslow & L. Maxfield (Eds.), Handbook of EMDR and family therapy processes (pp. p. 146-168). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.

Muris, P. & Merckelbach, H. (1997). Treating spider phobics with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: A controlled study. Behavioral and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 25, 39-50.

Muris, P., Merkelbach, H., Holdrinet, I., & Sijenaar, M. (1998). Treating phobic children: Effects of EMDR versus exposure. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 193-198.

Muris, P., Merckelbach, H., van Haaften, H., & Nayer, B. (1997). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing versus exposure in vivo. British Journal of Psychiatry 171, 82-86.

Nadler, W. (1996). EMDR: Rapid treatment of panic disorder. International Journal of Psychiatry, 2, 1-8.

National Institute for Clinical Excellence (2005). Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): The management of adults and children in primary and secondary care. London: NICE Guidelines.

Newgent, R. A., Paladino, D. A., & Reynolds, C. A. (2006). Single session treatment of nontraumatic fear of flying with Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing: Pre and post-September 11. Clinical Case Studies, 5(1), 25-36.

    • Eye movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR) was originally developed to treat traumatic memories. Since its development, the application of EMDR has proliferated to various disorders. A single session utilizing the EMDR approach applied to the treatment of nontraumatic fear of flying is presented. For this study, the EMDR process was adapted to meet the needs of the client. The purpose of this study is to provide an example of the in-flight application of a single session of EMDR to nontraumatic or small “t” fear of flying. The case of a client successfully treated with in-flight EMDR is presented. Pre-September 11 and post-September 11 follow-up with the client is also documented.

O’Brien, E. (Nov./Dec. 1993). Pushing the panic button. Family Therapy Networker, 75-83.

Oras, R., de Ezpeleta, S. & Ahmad, A. (2004). Treatment of traumatized refugee children with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 58, 1999-203.

Page, A. C. & Crino, R. D. (1993). Eye-movement desensitization: A simple treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 27, 288-293.

Parnell, L. (1994, August). Treatment of sexual abuse survivors with EMDR: Two case reports. Paper presented at the 102nd annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles.

Parnell, L. (1996). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and spiritual unfolding. The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 28, 129-153.

Parnell, L. (1997). Transforming Trauma: EMDR. New York: Norton.

Parnell, L. (1999). EMDR in the treatment of adults abused as children. New York: Norton.

Paulsen, S. (1995). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Its use in the dissociative disorders. Dissociation, 8, 32-44

Pellicer, X. (1993). Eye movement desensitization treatment of a child’s nightmares: A case report. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 24, 73-75.

Phillips, K. M., Freund, B., Fordiani, J., Kuhn, R., & Ironson, G. (2009) EMDR treatment of past domestic violence: A clinical vignette.  Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3, 192-197.

Pollock, P. (2000). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following homicide. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry, 11, 176-184.

Popky, A. J. (2005). DeTUR, an Urge Reduction Protocol for Addictions and Dysfunctional Behaviors. In R. Shapiro (Ed.), EMDR solutions: pathways to healing (pp. 167-188). New York: W. W. Norton.

Power, K. G., McGoldrick, T., Brown, K., Buchanan, R., Sharp, D., Swanson, V., & Karatzias, A. (2002). A controlled comparison of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing versus exposure plus cognitive restructuring, versus waiting list in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder.  Journal of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 9, 299-318

Protinsky, H., Sparks, J., & Flemke, K. (2001a). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Innovative clinical applications. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 31, 125-135.

Protinsky, H., Sparks, J., & Flemke, K. (2001b). Using eye movement desensitization and reprocessing to enhance treatment of couples. Journal of Marital & Family Therapy, 27, 157-164.

Puffer, M. K., Greenwald, R., & Elrod, D. E. (1998). A single session EMDR study with twenty traumatized children and adolescents. Traumatology, 3 (2).

Puk, G. (1991a). Treating traumatic memories: A case report on the eye movement desensitization procedure. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 22, 149-151.

Puk, G. (1991b, November). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Treatment of a more complex case, borderline personality disorder. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, New York.

Puk, G. (1992, May). The use of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in motor vehicle accident trauma. Paper presented at the eighth annual meeting of the American College of Forensic Psychology, San Francisco.

Raboni, M. R., Tufik, S., & Suchecki, D. (2006). Treatment of PTSD by eye movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR) improves sleep quality, quality of life, and perception of stress. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1071, 508-513.

    • The impact of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on the sleep of patients is widely reported. However, the parameters that can be altered are not the same for all patients. Some studies report an impairment of sleep maintenance and recurrent nightmares, while others failed to fi nd such alterations. Among the many treatments, the eye movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR) is a therapy used specifi cally to treat PTSD and general trauma. The purpose of this study was to examine whether EMDR treatment can improve PTSD symptoms, such as sleep, depression, anxiety, and poor quality of life.

Ray, A. L. & Zbik, A. (2001). Cognitive behavioral therapies and beyond. In C. D. Tollison, J. R. Satterhwaite, & J. W. Tollison (Eds.) Practical Pain Management (3rd ed.; pp. 189-208). Philadelphia: Lippincott.

Renfrey, G. & Spates, C. R. (1994). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: A partial dismantaling procedure. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 25, 231-239.

Ricci, R. J. (2006). Trauma Resolution Using Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing With an Incestuous Sex Offender: An Instrumental Case Study. Clinical Case Studies, 5(3), 248.

    • This case describes the use of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) to reduce reactivity to childhood trauma in an incestuous sex offender. It explores the relationship between desensitization and reprocessing of traumatic memory, and how this may promote sex offender treatment progress as an enhancement of, not a replacement for, the cognitive-behavioral/relapse prevention treatment of sexual offenders. Pre-treatment and post–treatment self-report and other- report instruments and semi-structured interviews are employed to explore the results of this intervention. Implications and suggestions for this treatment protocol are suggested.

Ricci, R. J., Clayton, C. A., & Shapiro, F. (2006). Some effects of EMDR treatment with previously abused child molesters: Theoretical reviews and preliminary findings.Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, 17, 538-562.

    • Ten child molesters with reported histories of childhood sexual abuse underwent eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) trauma treatment as an adjunct to standard cognitive-behavioural therapy-relapse prevention (CBT-RP) group treatment. Trauma resolution produced signifi  cant pre/post changes on all relevant subscales of the Sexual Offender Treatment Rating Scale (SOTRS). One unanticipated benefi  t was a consistent and sustained decline in deviant sexual arousal compared to the control condition. As measured by the SOTRS, decrease in arousal was also correlated with a decrease in sexual thoughts, increased motivation for treatment, and increased victim empathy. Deviant arousal is strongly associated with sexual recidivism. Clinical observations support  the notion that those sexual offenders with histories of childhood sexual abuse may be left with aberrant sexual arousal, which is one pathway to sexual offending. The adaptive information processing model offers an explanation of the decreased and sustained deviant arousal observed in this study. This preliminary evidence supports a call for further research into this phenomenon.

Rittenhouse, J. (2000). Using eye movement desensitization and reprocessing to treat complex PTSD in a biracial client. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 6, 399-408.

Rodenburg, R., Benjamin, A., Meijer, A.M. & Jongeneel, R. (in press). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in an adolescent with epilepsy and mild intellectual disability, Epilepsy & Behavior.

Rost, C., Hofmann, A. & Wheeler, K. (2009).  EMDR treatment of workplace trauma. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3, 80-90.

    • Résumé : Les violences et les agressions sur le lieu de travail représentent une inquiétude croissante au niveau international. Aucune étude n’a encore déterminé les stratégies psychothérapiques les plus efficaces pour réduire les conséquences de la violence au travail, et aucune n’a identifié les interventions qui pourraient fortifier les travailleurs répétitivement exposés au danger. La série de cas présenté ici décrit le traitement par l’EMDR de sept employés de banque et d’un transporteur de fonds qui ont vécu des traumatisations aiguës répétées. L’Impact of Events Scale, le Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome 10-Questions Inventory, et le Beck Depression Inventory ont été utilisés pour mesurer les modifications de la sévérité des symptômes. Les résultats ont montré que l’EMDR réduisait efficacement les symptômes et pouvait éventuellement fournir une protection dans les situations professionnelles de violence permanente. Source : Newsletter EMDRIA – septembre 2009 – Traduction : EMDR France

Royle, L. (2008). EMDR as a therapeutic treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2, 226-232.

Rothbaum, B. O. (1997). A controlled study of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for posttraumatic stress disordered sexual assault victims. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 61, 317-334.

Rothbaum, B. O., Astin, M. C., & Marsteller, F. (2005). Prolonged Exposure versus Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) for PTSD rape victims. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18(6), 607-616.

    • This controlled study evaluated the relative efficacy of Prolonged Exposure (PE) and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) compared to a no-treatment waitlist control (WAIT) in the treatment of PTSD in adult female rape victims (n = 74). Improvement in PTSD as assessed by blind independent assessors, depression, dissociation, and state anxiety was significantly greater in both the PE and EMDR group than the WAIT group (n = 20 completers per group). PE and EMDR did not differ significantly for change from baseline to either posttreatment or 6-month follow-up measurement for any quantitative scal

Rouanzoin, C. (1994, March). EMDR: Dissociative disorders and MPD. Paper presented at the 14th annual meeting of the Anxiety Disorders Association of America, Santa Monica, CA.

Russell, A. & O’Connor, M. (2002). Interventions for recovery: The use of EMDR with children in a community-based project. Association for Child Psychiatry and Psychology, Occasional Paper No. 19, 43-46.

Russell, M. C. (2008). War-Related medically unexplained symptoms, prevalence, and treatment: Utilizing EMDR within the armed services. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(3), 212-225.

Russell, M.C. (2008). Treating traumatic amputation-related phantom limb pain. Clinical Case Studies 7, 136-153..

Russell, M. C. (2006). Treating combat-related stress disorders: A multiple case study utilizing eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) with battlefield casualties from the Iraqi War. Military Psychology, 18(1), 1.

    • Casualties from the Iraqi War were evacuated to a field hospital in Rota, Spain, and were screened for combat-related stress conditions. Four combat veterans requested immediate relief of their posttraumatic symptoms prior to returning to the United States. A single session of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) led to significant improvement in their acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. A detailed account of those treatment sessions, as well as the proposed alterations of standard protocols for time-limited fieldwork, is presented. Compared to other early interventions, EMDR may be better suited for combat veterans. The results are promising but in need of further research.

Russell, M. C., Silver, S. M., Rogers, S., & Darnell, J. N. (2007). Responding to an Identified Need: A Joint Department of Defense/Department of Veterans Affairs Training Program in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) for Clinicians Providing Trauma Services. International Journal of Stress Management, 14(1), 61.

Sandstrom, M., Wiberg, B., Wikman, M., Willman, A. K., & Hogberg, U. (2008). A pilot study of eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing treatment (EMDR) for post-traumatic stress after childbirth. Midwifery, 24, 62-73.

Scheck, M. M., Schaeffer, J. A., & Gillette, C. S. (1998). Brief psychological intervention with traumatized young women: The efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11, 25-44.

Schneider, G., Nabavi, D., & Heuft, G. (2005). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in a patient with comorbid epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior, 7(4), 715-718.

    • Whether eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) causes reactivation of epilepsy is as yet unclear. A 34-year-old woman was treated in an inpatient multimodal psychotherapeutic setting with EMDR for PTSD resulting from sexual harassment and for a moderate depressive episode. She had been diagnosed with idiopathic generalized absence epilepsy in childhood, but had experienced no seizures under lamotrigine medication since 1999. After the second EMDR session, clinical seizures in the form of absences occurred, and were validated by electroencephalography. The seizures ceased after medication with benzodiazepines and an increase in the lamotrigine level. She underwent four more sessions of EMDR treatment successfully without further seizures. Possible triggers are discussed, especially as to whether EMDR treatment played a role in reactivating epilepsy. Further research and publications on the application of EMDR in epilepsy patients are needed.

Schneider, J., Hofmann, A., Rost, C.,  & Shapiro, F. (2006).  EMDR in the treatment of chronic phantom limb pain. Pain Medicine. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2007.00299.x

    • Little research substantiates long-term gains in the treatment of phantom limb pain. This report describes the use of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) treatment and long-term follow up in a series of fi  ve patients with chronic phantom limb pain, treated in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Phantom limb pain in these patients ranged from one to 16 years and all patients were on extensive medication regimens prior to EMDR. Interventions of three to 15 sessions of EMDR were used to treat the pain and psychological ramifi  cations. Outcome measures included: continued use of medications, pain intensity/frequency, psychological trauma and depression. Results indicate a signifi  cant decrease or elimination of phantom pain, reduction in depression and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms to sub-clinical levels, and signifi  cant reduction or elimination of medications related to the phantom pain at long term follow-up. These results suggest that (1) a signifi  cant aspect of phantom limb pain is the physiological memory storage of the pain sensations and (2) these memories can be successfully reprocessed.

Schneider, J., Hofmann, A., Rost, C., & Shapiro, F. (2007). EMDR and phantom limb pain: Case study, theoretical implications, and treatment guidelines. Journal of EMDR Science and Practice, 1, 31-45.

Schurmans, K. (2007). EMDR treatment of choking phobia. Journal of EMDR Practice & Research, 1, 118-121.

Seidler, G. H., & Wagner, F. E. (2006). Comparing the efficacy of EMDR and trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of PTSD: a meta-analytic study. Psychological Medicine, 1-8.

    • Background. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are both widely used in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There has, however, been debate regarding the advantages of one approach over the other. This study sought to determine whether there was any evidence that one treatment was superior to the other. Method. We performed a systematic review of the literature dating from 1989 to 2005 and identified eight publications describing treatment outcomes of EMDR and CBT in active-active comparisons. Seven of these studies were investigated meta-analytically. Results. The superiority of one treatment over the other could not be demonstrated. Trauma-focused CBT and EMDR tend to be equally efficacious. Differences between the two forms of treatment are probably not of clinical significance. While the data indicate that moderator variables influence treatment efficacy, we argue that because of the small number of original studies, little benefit is to be gained from a closer examination of these variables. Further research is needed within the framework of randomized controlled trials. Conclusions. Our results suggest that in the treatment of PTSD, both therapy methods tend to be equally efficacious. We suggest that future research should not restrict its focus to the efficacy, effectiveness and efficiency of these therapy methods but should also attempt to establish which trauma patients are more likely to benefit from one method or the other. What remains unclear is the contribution of the eye movement component in EMDR to treatment outcome.

Shapiro, E. & Laub, B. (2008). Early EMDR intervention (EEI): A summary, a theoretical model, and the recent traumatic episode protocol (R-TEP). Journal of EMDR Practice & Research, 2, 79-96.

Shapiro, F. (1989a). Efficacy of the eye movement desensitization procedure in the treatment of traumatic memories. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 2 (2), 199-223.

Shapiro, F. (1989b). Eye movement desensitization: A new treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 20, 211-217.

Shapiro, F. (1991). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing procedure: From EMD to EMDR: A new treatment model for anxiety and related traumata. Behavior Therapist, 14, 133-135.

Shapiro, F. (1994). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: A new treatment for anxiety and related trauma. In Lee Hyer (Ed.), Trauma Victim: Theoretical and Practical Suggestions (pp. 501-521). Muncie, Indiana: Accelerated Development Publishers.

Shapiro, F. (1995). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Basic principles, protocols and procedures. New York: Guilford Press.

Shapiro, F. (1999). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and the anxiety disorders: Clinical and research implications of an integrated psychotherapy treatment. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 13, 35-67.

Shapiro, F., (2001). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Basic principles, protocols and procedures (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

Shapiro, F. (2002). EMDR as an integrative psychotherapy approach: Experts of diverse orientations explore the paradigm prism. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.

Shapiro, F. (2006).  EMDR and new notes on adaptive information processing: Case formulation principles, scripts and worksheets. Camden, CT: EMDR Humanitarian Assistance Programs.

Shapiro, F. (2007). EMDR, adaptive information processing, and case conceptualization. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 1, 68-87.

Shapiro, F. & Forrest, M. (1997). EMDR the breakthrough therapy for overcoming anxiety, stress and trauma. New York: Basic Books.

Shapiro, F., Kaslow, F. W., & Maxfield, L. (2007). Handbook of EMDR and family therapy processes. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.

Shapiro, F. & Solomon, R. (1995). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Neurocognitive information processing. In G. Everley (Ed.), Innovations in disaster and trauma psychology, Vol. 1 (pp. 216-237). Elliot City, MD: Chevron Publishing.

Shapiro, F., Vogelmann-Sine, S., & Sine, L. (1994). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Treating trauma and substance abuse. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 26, 379-391.

Shusta-Hochberg, S. R. (2003). Impact of the world trade center disaster on a Manhattan psychotherapy practice. Journal of Trauma Practice, 2, 1-16.

Silver, S., & Rogers, S. (2001). Light in the heart of darkness: EMDR and the treatment of war and terrorism survivors. New York: Norton.

Silver, S. M., Rogers, S., Knipe, J., & Colelli, G. (2005). EMDR therapy following the 9/11 terrorist attacks: A community-based intervention project in new york city. International Journal of Stress Management, 12(1), 29-42.

Silver, S. M., Rogers, S., & Russell, M. (2008). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of war veterans. J Clin Psychol, 64(8), 947-957.

Softic, R. (2009). Kompletna remisija simptoma akutnog neratnog PSSP-a nakon jedne seanse EMDR – [Complete symptom’s remissions of acute non-combat PTSD after one session]. Acta Med Sal, 37, 147-150.

Snyder, M. (1996). Intimate partners: A context for the intensification and healing of emotional pain. Women and Therapy, 19, 79-92.

Soberman, G. B., Greenwald, R., & Rule, D. L. (2002). A controlled study of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for boys with conduct problems. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment, and Trauma, 6, 217-236.

Solomon, R. M. (1994, June). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing and treatment of grief. Paper presented at 4th International Conference on Grief and Bereavement in Contemporary Society, Stockholm, Sweden.

Solomon, R.M. (1995, February). Critical incident trauma: Lessons learned at Waco, Texas. Paper presented at the Law Enforcement Psychology Conference, San Mateo, CA.

Solomon, R.M. (1998). Utilization of EMDR in crisis intervention. Crisis Intervention ,4, 239-246.

Solomon, R. & Dyregrov, A. (2000). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). Rebuilding assumptive words. Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening, 37, 1024-1030.

Solomon, R.M. & Kaufman, T. (1994, March). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: An effective addition to critical incident treatment protocols. Paper presented at the 14th annual meeting of the Anxiety Disorders Association of America, Santa Monica, CA.

Solomon, R. M. & Kaufman, T. E. (2002). A peer support workshop for the treatment of traumatic stress of railroad personnel: Contributions of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). Journal of Brief Therapy, 2, 27-33.

Solomon, R. M., & Rando, T. A. (2007). Utilization of EMDR in the treatment of grief and mourning. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 1(3), 109-117.

Solomon, R. M., & Shapiro, F. (1997). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing:  An effective therapeutic tool for trauma and grief. In C. R. Figley, B. E. Bride & N. Mazza (Eds.), Death and trauma: the traumatology of grieving (pp. 231-247). Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis.

Spates, R. C. & Burnette, M. M. (1995). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Three unusual cases. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 26, 51-55.

Spector, J. & Huthwaite, M. (1993). Eye-movement desensitisation to overcome post-traumatic stress disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 106-108.

Sprang, G. (2001). The use of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of traumatic stress and complicated mourning: Psychological and behavioral outcomes. Research on Social Work Practice, 11, 300-320.

Stewart, K. & Bramson, T. (2000). Incorporating EMDR in residential treatment. Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 17, 83-90.

Stowasser, J. (2007). EMDR and family therapy in the treatment of domestic violence. In F. Shapiro, F. W. Kaslow & L. Maxfield (Eds.), Handbook of EMDR and family therapy processes (pp. p. 243-264). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.

Streeck-Fischer, A. (2005). Traumaexposition bei Jugendlichen? Ein Fallbeispiel. [Trauma exposure with adolescents? A case report.]. PTT: Personlichkeitsstorungen Theorie und Therapie, 9(1), 22.

    • In general it is suggested to expose adolescents with severe posttraumatic stress disorder to an EMDR treatment embedded in psychotherapy. Because of adolescent-specific conflicts like autonomy and independency, speechlessness and “enacted messages” and the unstable life-situation of those adolescents therapeutic steps of stabilisation and resource development have to be given prior emphasis. Trauma exposure with EMDR can be done within certain limits resulting from actual conflicts and tasks which have to be resolved first. A case report demonstrates the different problems.

Talan, B. S. (2007). Integrating EMDR and imago relationship therapy in treatment of couples. In F. Shapiro, F. W. Kaslow & L. Maxfield (Eds.), Handbook of EMDR and family therapy processes (pp. p. 187-201). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.

Tanaka, K., & Inoue, K. (1999). EMDR treatment for childhood traumatic memories – A case of seasonal depression as an anniversary phenomenon. Kokoro no Rinsho Arakaruto, 18(1), 69-75.

Taylor, R. (2002). Family unification with reactive attachment disorder: A brief treatment. Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal, 24, 475-481.

Thomas, R. & Gafner, G. (1993). PTSD in an elderly male: Treatment with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). Clinical Gerontologist, 14, 57-59.

Tinker, R. H. & Wilson, S. A. (1999). Through the eyes of a child: EMDR with children. New York: Norton.

Tinker, R. H. & Wilson, S. A. (2006). The Phantom Limb Pain Protocol. In Shapiro, R. (Ed.), EMDR Solutions: Pathways to Healing, (pp 147-159), New York, W. W. Norton & Co.

Tufnell, G. (2005). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in the treatment of pre-adolescent children with post-traumatic symptoms. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 10(4), 587.

    • This article describes the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) with four pre-adolescent children. EMDR has been shown to bring rapid relief in adults with PTSD. Studies are beginning to show that it can also be useful in work with young children. However, the standard protocol requires some adjustment to make it suitable for use with young children. In addition, in situations where children have complex difficulties in addition to PTSD, EMDR may need to be used alongside other interventions within a complex treatment package. This study describes brief work carried out with four pre-adolescent children with PTSD. Three of these children had received no treatment despite suffering from significant and chronic symptoms for some years. One had suffered a recent traumatic bereavement. All had additional problems that required intervention. EMDR was used as part of a multimodal treatment package. In all cases, the children’s PTSD symptoms resolved within 2-4 sessions of EMDR. The maximum total number of sessions was 7. The children’s symptomatic improvements were maintained at 6-month follow-up. EMDR can be adapted for use with pre-adolescent children. It can provide rapid and lasting symptomatic relief. EMDR can be a useful part of a multimodal treatment package for young children with PTSD and additional mental health problems.

Twombly, J. (2000). Incorporating EMDR and EMDR adaptations into the treatment of clients with dissociative identity disorder. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 1, 61-81.

Twombly, J. H. (2005). EMDR for Clients with Dissociative Identity Disorder, DDNOS, and Ego States. In R. Shapiro (Ed.), EMDR solutions: pathways to healing (pp. 88-120). New York: W. W. Norton.

Uribe, M. E. R., & Ramirez, E. O. L. (2006). The effect of EMDR therapy on the negative information processing on patients who suffer depression. Revista Electrónica de Motivación y Emoción (REME), 9, 23-24.

van der Kolk, B. A., Spinazzola, J., Blaustein, M. E., Hopper, J. W., Hopper, E. K., Korn, D. L., Simpson, W. B. (2007). A randomized clinical trial of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), fluoxetine, and pill placebo in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: treatment effects and long-term maintenance. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68(1), 37-46.

Van Loey, N.E.E.& Van Son, M.J.M. (2003) Psychopathology and psychological problems in patients with burn scars. American Journal of Clinical Dermatology, 4, 245-272.

Vaughan, K., Armstrong, M . F., Gold, R., O’Connor, N., Jenneke, W., & Tarrier, N. (1994). A trial of eye movement desensitization compared to image habituation training and applied muscle relaxation in post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 25, 283-291.

Vaughan, K., Wiese, M., Gold, R., & Tarrier, N. (1994). Eye-movement desensitisation: Symptom change in post-traumatic stress disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 533-541.

Vogelmann-Sinn, S., Sine, L. F., Smyth, N. J., & Popky, A. J. (1998). EMDR chemical dependency treatment manual. New Hope, PA: EMDR Humanitarian Assistance Programs.

Wanders, F., Serra, M., & de Jongh, A. (2008). EMDR versus CBT for children with self-esteem and behavioral problems: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2, 180-189.

Wernik, U. (1993). The role of the traumatic component in the etiology of sexual dysfunctions and its treatment with eye movement desensitization procedure. Journal of Sex Education and Therapy, 19, 212-222.

Wesselmann, D. & Potter, A. E. (2009).  Change in adult attachment status following treatment with EMDR: Three case studies. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3, 178-191.

Wesson, M. & Gould, M. (2009). Intervening early with EMDR on military operations: A case study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3, 91-97.

    • Résumé : Actuellement, les forces armées britanniques sont impliquées dans un certain nombre d’opérations militaires dans le monde. Offrir sur le terrain des interventions psychologiques structurées comme l’EMDR présente un certain nombre d’avantages potentiels. Cette étude d’un cas décrit la façon dont le protocole EMDR pour un événement traumatique récent (Shapiro, 1995) a été utilisé sur le terrain avec un soldat britannique qui faisait une réaction de stress aigu après avoir traité la victime d’une mine. L’intervention a eu lieu deux semaines après le traumatisme, en quatre séances réparties sur quatre jours consécutifs, avec un résultat positif tel que le soldat a pu remonter immédiatement au front. La réaction aux traitements a été évaluée par l’administration de quatre mesures standardisées, avant le traitement, après le traitement, et 18 mois après le traitement. L’article explore aussi les difficultés de la conduite de l’EMDR sur les théâtres d’opérations et leurs implications cliniques. Source : Newsletter EMDRIA – septembre 2009 – Traduction : EMDR France

White, G.D. (1998). Trauma treatment training for Bosnian and Croatian mental health workers. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 63, 58-62.

Wilensky, M. (2006). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) as a  treatment for  phantom limb pain. Journal of Brief Therapy, 5, 31-44.

Wilson, S. A., Becker, L. A., & Tinker, R. H. (1995). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) treatment for psychologically traumatized individuals. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 928-937.

Wilson, S. A., Becker, L. A., & Tinker, R. H. (1997). Fifteen-month follow-up of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) treatment for PTSD and psychological trauma. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 1047-1056.

Wilson, S.A., Becker, L.A., Tinker, R.H., & Logan, C.R. (2001). Stress management with law enforcement personnel. A controlled outcome study of EMDR versus a traditional stress management program. International Journal of Stress Management, 8, 179-200.

Wilson, S. A., Tinker, R., Becker, L. A., Hofmann, A., & Cole, J. W. (2000, September). EMDR treatment of phantom limb pain with brain imaging (MEG). Paper presented at the annual meeting of the EMDR International Association, Toronto, Canada.

Wolpe, J. & Abrams, J. (1991). Post-traumatic stress disorder overcome by eye movement desensitization: A case report. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 22, 39-43.

Young, W. (1994). EMDR treatment of phobic symptoms in multiple personality. Dissociation, 7, 129-133.

Young, W. (1995). EMDR: Its use in resolving the trauma caused by the loss of a war buddy. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 49, 282-291.

Zimmermann, P; Güse, U; Barre, K; Biesold, K H (2005) EMDR in the German Armed Forces–Therapeutic Impact of Inpatient Therapy of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder/EMDR-Therapie in der Bundeswehr–Untersuchung zur Wirksamkeit bei Posttraumatischer Belastungsstörung, Krankenhauspsychiatrie. Vol. 16(2), Jun 2005, pp. 57-63.

    • In this retrospective study 89 German soldiers being treated as inpatients for a posttraumatic stress disorder between 1998 and 2002 were investigated. After a mean of 29 months they were reevaluated with questionnaires. 20 patients treated with EMDR could be compared to 14 patients with a supportive treatment. The results (IES. SUD. VoC) directly after treatment and in the long-term follow-up were significantly superior in the EMDR-group compared to the controls. Soldiers traumatized in out-of-area missions tended to have a better short-term outcome than soldiers traumatized in Germany.

Zabukovec, J., Lazrove, S., & Shapiro, F. (2000). Self-healing aspects of EMDR: The therapeutic change process and perspective of integrated psychotherapies. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 10, 189-206.

Zaghrout-Hodali, M., Alissa, F., & Dodgson, P. W. (2008). Building resilience and dismantling fear: EMDR group protocol with children in an area of ongoing trauma. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(2), 106-113.

Zweben, J. & Yeary, J. (2006). EMDR in the treatment of addiction. Journal of Chemical Dependency Treatment, 8, 115-127.

    •  EMDR offers so much promise and great challenges to addiction treatment providers. It is a powerful tool for trauma resolution, but it must be carefully integrated into addiction treatment. Organizational as well as individual safety structures must be in place so that vulnerable individuals may be offered this opportunity under conditions which maximize their chances for success. Efforts are underway to obtain funding for controlled trials, and it is hoped that these will clarify safety and effi  cacy questions, as well as many clinical issues that arise as more clinicians work with this method.

Développer un nouveau protocole EMDR

De nombreuses ressources sont disponibles pour les chercheurs et cliniciens qui souhaitent développer et tester de nouveaux protocoles EMDR.

INSTITUT FRANÇAIS D’EMDR

Notre institut soutien les chercheurs et cliniciens qui travaillent sur de nouveaux protocoles : accès à la bibliothèque de l’Institut (articles et recherches), possibilité de prise en charge de formations et séminaires concernant les populations étudiées…

Nous contacter

EMDR FRANCE

L’association EMDR France a mis en place une commission de recherche chargée de l’élaboration, de la coordination et du financement des recherches.

Pour contacter cette commission : c’est ici

EMDR EUROPE

L’association EMDR Europe propose des ressources sur son site internet : www.emdr-europe.org, et notamment un point sur La recherche en Europe et une rubrique consacrée à Research grants

EMDRIA

L’association EMDRIA propose également des ressources pour les chercheurs et cliniciens sur son site internet : http://www.emdria.org/.

Parmi les ressources proposées, vous trouverez :

Research Support Listserv

How to develop and research a new treatment protocol for EMDR

Obtain an EMDR fidelity Scale

Selected Instruments for Psychotherapy Outcome Measurement

Obtaining help with an EMDR research project or dissertation

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Source : Site de l’EMDR Institute – EMDR Evaluated Clinical Applications.

Traduction : Institut Français d’EMDR – Intégrativa

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