Traitement adaptatif de l'information et procédures de la thérapie EMDR

Traitement adaptatif de l’information et procédures de la thérapie EMDR

Le modèle de traitement de l’information adaptative (Shapiro, 2001, 2002, 2007) est utilisé pour expliquer les effets cliniques de l’EMDR et guider la pratique clinique. Ce modèle n’est lié à aucun mécanisme neurobiologique spécifique puisque le domaine de la neurobiologie est encore incapable de le déterminer dans aucune forme de psychothérapie (ni dans la plupart des médicaments).

Cet article liste une série d’articles qui donnent  un aperçu du modèle et des procédures, ainsi que des recherches et des rapports de cas sélectionnés qui démontrent la valeur prédictive du modèle dans le traitement des expériences de vie qui semblent sous-tendre diverses plaintes cliniques.


Afifi, T.O., Mota, N.P., Dasiewicz, P.,   MacMillan, H.L.  & Sareen, J. (2012). Physical punishment and mental disorders: Results from a nationally representative US sample. Pediatrics, 130DOI:10.1542/peds.2011-2947

  • English abstract : Harsh physical punishment [i.e., pushing, grabbing, shoving, slapping, hitting] in the absence of [more severe] child maltreatment is associated with mood disorders, anxiety disorders, substance abuse/dependence, and personality disorders in a general population sample.

Allon, M. (2015). EMDR group therapy with women who were sexually assaulted in the Congo. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 9, 28-34.

  • English abstract : Rape victims were successfully treated within three sessions using both individual and group protocols. They reported the simultaneous remission of back and abdominal pain. These processing results are consistent with the reported remission of PLP with EMDR therapy.

Arseneault, L., Cannon, M, Fisher, H.L. Polanczyk, G. Moffitt, T.E. & Caspi, A. (2011). Childhood trauma and children’s emerging psychotic symptoms: A genetically sensitive longitudinal cohort study. Am J Psychiatry, 168, 65–72.

  • English abstract : Trauma characterized by intention to harm is associated with children’s reports of psychotic symptoms. Clinicians working with children who report early symptoms of psychosis should nquire about traumatic events such as maltreatment and bullying.

Bae, H., Kim, D. & Park, Y.C. (2008). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for adolescent depression. Psychiatry Investigation, 5, 60-65.

  • English abstract : Processing of etiological disturbing memories, triggers and templates resulted in complete remission of Major Depressive Disorder in two teenagers. Treatment duration was 3-7 sessions and effects were maintained at follow-up.

Brown, S. & Shapiro, F. (2006).  EMDR in the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Clinical Case Studies, 5, 403-420.

  • English abstract : 20 EMDR sessions that focused on reprocessing the memories seemingly at the foundation of the pathology, along with triggers and future templates resulted in a complete remission of BPD, including symptoms of affect dysregulation, as measured on the Inventory of Altered Self Capacities.

Behnam Moghadam, M., Alamdari, A.K., Behnam Moghadam, A. & Darban, F. (2015). Effect of EMDR on depression in patients with myocardial infarction Global Journal of Health Science, 7, 258-262.

  • English abstract : In this randomized study, the mean depression level in experimental group significantly decreased following the intervention. These changes were significantly greater compared to the control group. Conclusion: “EMDR is an effective, useful, efficient, and non-invasive method for treatment and reducing depression in patients with MI.” A 12-month follow-up reported maintenance of treatment effects: Behnam, M. M., Behnam, M. A., & Salehian, T. (2015). Efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) on depression in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) in a 12-month follow up. Iranian Journal of Critical Care Nursing, 7, 221-226.

Brown, K. W., McGoldrick, T., & Buchanan, R. (1997). Body dysmorphic disorder : Seven cases treated with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 25, 203–207

  • English abstract : Seven consecutive cases were treated with up to three sessions of EMDR.  Complete remission of BDD symptoms were reported in five cases with effects maintained at one- year follow-up
  • Abstract en français : Sept cas consécutifs ont été traités avec jusqu’à trois séances d’EMDR. Une rémission complète des symptômes du trouble dysmorphique corporel a été rapportée dans cinq cas avec un maintien des effets lors du suivi après un an.

Doering, S., Ohlmeier, M. C., Jongh, A., Hofmann, A., & Bisping, V. (2013). Efficacy of a trauma‐focused treatment approach for dental phobia: a randomized clinical trial. European Journal of Oral Sciences, 121, 584-593.

  • English abstract : Three sessions of EMDR therapy memory processing resulted in remission of dental phobia. After 1 yr, 83.3% of the patients were in regular dental treatment (d = 3.20). The findings suggest that therapy aimed at processing memories of past dental events can be helpful for patients with dental phobia.

de Roos, C., Veenstra, A.C, et al. (2010). Treatment of chronic phantom limb pain (PLP) using a trauma-focused psychological approach. Pain Research and Management, 15, 65-71.

  • English abstract : 10 consecutive cases of phantom limb pain were treated with EMDR resulting in the reduction or elimination of pain in all but two cases.  Results were maintained at 2.8-year follow-up.

Faretta, E. (2013). EMDR and cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of panic disorder : A comparison. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 7, 121-133.

  • English abstract : As predicted by AIP, the processing of etiological events, triggers and memory templates was sufficient to alleviate the diagnosis without the use of treatment specific homework in contrast to the CBT group. In this RCT, there was “a continuing decrease in frequency of panic attacks for participants with PD or PDA in the EMDR condition at follow-up that was significantly greater than that found in the CBT treatment group.”

Felitti, V. J., et al. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The adverse childhood experiences (ACE) study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14, 245–258.

  • English abstract : We found a strong dose response relationship between the breadth of exposure to abuse or household dysfunction during childhood and multiple risk factors for several of the leading causes of death in adults.

Fernandez, I., & Faretta, E. (2007). EMDR in the treatment of panic disorder with agoraphobia. Clinical Case Studies, 6, 44-63.

  • English abstract : As predicted by AIP, the processing of etiological events, triggers and memory templates was sufficient to alleviate the diagnosis without the use of therapist-assisted in vivo exposure.

Gauvreau, P. & Bouchard, S. (2008) Preliminary evidence for the efficacy of EMDR in treating generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2. 26- 40.

  • English abstract : Four subjects were evaluated using a single case design with multiple baselines Results indicate that subsequent to targeting the experiential contributors, at posttreatment and at 2 months follow-up, all four participants no longer presented with GAD diagnosis.

Heim, Plotsky & Nemeroff (2004). Importance of studying the contributions of early adverse experience to neurobiological findings in depression. Neuropsychopharmacology, 29, 641–648.

  • English abstract : The available data suggest that (1) early adverse experience contributes to the pathophysiology of depression, (2) there are neurobiologically different subtypes of depression depending on the presence or absence of early adverse experience, likely having confounded previous research on the neurobiology of depression, and (3) early adverse experience likely influences treatment response in depression.

Heins et al. (2011). Childhood trauma and psychosis: a case-control and case-sibling comparison across different levels of genetic liability, psychopathology, and type of trauma. Am J Psychiatry, 168, 1286-1294.

  • English abstract : Discordance in psychotic illness across related individuals can be traced to differential exposure to trauma. The association between trauma and psychosis is apparent across different levels of illness and vulnerability to psychotic disorder, suggesting true association rather than reporting bias, reverse causality, or passive gene-environment correlation.

Madrid, A., Skolek, S., & Shapiro, F. (2006) Repairing failures in bonding through EMDR. Clinical Case Studies. 5, 271-286.

  • English abstract : EMDR processing of experiential contributors to bonding disruption, in addition to current triggers, and a memory template of an alternative/problem free pregnancy and birth resulted in the repair of maternal bonding, analogous to the positive findings with the repair of disrupted attachment.

McGoldrick, T., Begum, M. & Brown, K.W. (2008). EMDR and olfactory reference syndrome: A case series. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research 2, 63-68.

  • English abstract : EMDR treatment of four consecutive cases of ORS whose pathological symptoms had endured for 8–48 years resulted in a complete resolution of symptoms in all four cases, which was maintained at follow-up.

Mol, S. S. L., Arntz, A., Metsemakers, J. F. M., Dinant, G., Vilters-Van Montfort, P. A. P., & Knottnerus, A. (2005). Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder after non-traumatic events: Evidence from an open population study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 186, 494–499.

  • English abstract : Supports a basic tenet of the Adaptive Information Processing model that “Life events can generate at least as many PTSD symptoms as traumatic events.”  In a survey of 832 people, “For events from the past 30 years the PTSD scores were higher after life events than after traumatic event.”

Nazari, H., Momeni, N., Jariani, M., & Tarrahi, M. J. (2011). Comparison of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing with citalopram in treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 15, 270-274.

  • English abstract : There was significant difference between the mean Yale–Brown scores of the two groups after treatment and EMDR was more effective than citalopram in improvement of OCD signs.

Obradovic´, J., Bush, N.R., Stamperdahl, J., Adler, N.E. & Boyce, W.T.  (2010). Biological sensitivity to context: The interactive effects of stress reactivity and family adversity on socioemotional behavior and school readiness. Child Development, 1, 270–289.

  • English abstract : A substantive body of work has established that environmental adversity can have a deleterious effect on children’s functioning” “Exposure to adverse, stressful events . . .has been linked to socioemotional behavior problems and cognitive deficits.

Perkins, B.R. & Rouanzoin, C.C. (2002). A critical évaluation of current views regarding eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) : Clarifying points of confusion. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 77-97.

  • English abstract : Reviews common errors and misperceptions of the procedures, research, theory.
  • Abstract en français : On trouve dans la littérature technique de nombreux exemples d’idées fausses créées et entretenues autour de la thérapie EMDR. Cet article en fait une critique complète.

Raboni, M.R., Tufik, S., Suchecki, D. (2006). Treatment of PTSD by eye movement desensitization and reprocessing improves sleep quality, quality of life and perception of stress. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1071, 508-513.

  • English abstract : Specifically citing the hypothesis that EMDR induces processing effects similar to REM sleep (see also Stickgold, 2002), polysomnograms indicated a change in sleep patterns post treatment, and improvement on all measures including anxiety, depression, and quality of life after a mean of five sessions.
  • Abstract en français : En référence à l’hypothèse selon laquelle la thérapie EMDRinduit des effets de traitement similaires à ceux du sommeil paradoxal (voir aussi Stickgold, 2002), les polysomnoframmes indiquent un changement au niveau des patterns de sommeil après le traitement et une amélioration sur toutes les mesures incluant l’anxiété, la dépression et la qualité de vie après une moyenne de 5 séances.

Ray, A. L., Zbik, A. (2001). Cognitive behavioral therapies and beyond. In C. D. Tollison, J. R. Satterhwaite, & J. W. Tollison (Eds.) Practical Pain Management (3rd ed. ; pp. 189-208). Philadelphia : Lippincott.

  • English abstract : Notes that the application of EMDR guided by its information processing model appears to afford benefits to chronic pain patients not found in other treatments.
  • Abstract en français : Les auteurs notent que l’utilisation de la thérapie EMDR, guidée par son modèle de traitement de l’information, apporte à des patients atteints de douleurs chroniques des bénéfices qu’ils ne trouvent pas dans d’autres formes de traitement.

Ricci, R. J., Clayton, C. A., Shapiro, F. (2006). Some effects of EMDR treatment with previously abused child molesters : Theoretical reviews and preliminary findings. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology.

  • English abstract : As predicted by the Adaptive Information Processing model the EMDR treatment of the molesters’ own childhood victimization resulted in a decrease in deviant arousal as measured by the plethysmograph, a decrease in sexual thoughts, and increased victim empathy.
  • Abstract en français : Comme prévu par le modèle de traitement adaptatif de l’information, le traitement EMDR de la victimisation vécue dans l’enfance par des agresseurs a provoqué la diminution de l’excitation sexuelle déviante telle que mesurée par le pléthysmographe de l’empathie pour les victimes.

Roos et al. (2010). Treatment of chronic phantom limb pain (PLP) using a trauma-focused psychological approach. Pain Research and Management, 15, 65-71.

  • English abstract : 10 consecutive cases of phantom limb pain were treated with EMDR resulting in the reduction or elimination of pain in all but two cases.  Results were maintained at 2.8-year follow-up.

Russell, M. (2008). Treating traumatic amputation-related phantom limb pain :  a case study utilizing eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) within the armed services. Clinical Case Studies, 7, 136-153.

  • English abstract : Since September 2006, over 725 service-members from the global war on terrorism have survived combat-related traumatic amputations that often result in phantom limb pain (PLP) syndrome.  Four sessions of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) led to elimination of PLP, and a significant reduction in PTSD, depression, and phantom limb tingling sensations.
  • Abstract en français : Depuis septembre 2006, plus de 725 soldats de la guerre globale contre le terrorisme ont survécu à des amputations traumatiques liés au combat qui provoquent souvent un syndrome de douleur du membre fantôme… Quatre séances d’EMDR ont produit l’élimination de la douleur du membre fantôme et une réduction significative au niveau de l’ESPT, la dépression et des sensations de fourmillement dans le membre fantôme.

Schneider, J., Hofmann, A., Rost, C., & Shapiro, F. (2007). EMDR and phantom limb pain: Case study, theoretical implications, and treatment guidelines. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 1, 31-45.

  • English abstract : Detailed presentation of case treated by EMDR that resulted in complete elimination of PTSD, depression and phantom limb pain with effects maintained at 18-month follow-up.

Schneider, J., Hofmann, A., Rost, C.,  & Shapiro, F. (2008).  EMDR in the treatment of chronic phantom limb pain. Pain Medicine, 9, 76-82.

  • English abstract : As predicted by the Adaptive Information Processing model the EMDR treatment of the event involving the limb loss, and the stored memories of the pain sensations, resulted a decrease or elimination of the phantom limb pain which maintained at 1 year follow up.
  • Abstract en français : Comme prédit par le modèle de Traitement adaptatif de l’information, le traitement EMDR d’un événement entraînant la perte d’un membre et des souvenirs stockés de sensations douloureuses, a résulté en la diminution ou l’élimination de la douleur du membre fantôme avec maintien des résultats lors du suivi après un an.

Schneider, J., Hofmann, A., Rost, C., & Shapiro, F. (2007). EMDR and phantom limb pain: Case study, theoretical implications, and treatment guidelines. Journal of EMDR Science and Practice, 1, 31-45.

  • English abstract : Detailed presentation of case treated by EMDR that resulted in complete elimination of PTSD, depression and phantom limb pain with effects maintained at 18-month follow-up.
  • Abstract en français : Une présentation détaillée d’un cas traité en EMDR qui a permis une élimination complète de l’ESPT, de la dépression et de la douleur du membre fantôme avec un maintien des effets après 18 mois.

Shapiro, F. (2001). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing : Basic principles, protocols and procedures (2nd ed.). New York : Guilford Press.

  • English abstract : EMDR is an eight-phase psychotherapy with standardized procedures and protocols that are all believed to contribute to therapeutic effect. This text provides description and clinical transcripts.
  • Abstract en français : La thérapie EMDR est une forme de psychothérapie, en huit phases, dont on considère que les procédures et les protocoles standardisés ont des effets thérapeutiques. Ce texte en donne des descriptions, ainsi que des transcriptions cliniques d’extraits de séances.

Shapiro, F. (2002). (Ed.). EMDR as an integrative psychotherapy approach : Experts of diverse orientations explore the paradigm prism. Washington, DC : American Psychological Association Books.

  • English abstract : EMDR is an integrative approach distinct from other forms of psychotherapy. Experts of the major psychotherapy orientations identify and highlight various procedural elements.
  • Abstract en français : La thérapie EMDR est une approche intégrative qui diffère d’autres formes de psychothérapie. Des experts des branches les plus importantes de la psychothérapie identifient et éclairent divers éléments de procédure.

Shapiro, F. (2007).  EMDR, adaptive information processing, and case conceptualization. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 1, 68-87.

  • English abstract : Overview of EMDR treatment based upon an Adaptive Information Processing case conceptualization.  Early life experiences are viewed as the basis of pathology and used as targets for processing.  The three-pronged protocol includes processing of the past events that have set the foundation for the pathology, the current triggers, and templates for appropriate future functioning to address skill and developmental deficits.
  • Abstract en français : Une revue du traitement EMDR basé sur une conceptualisation de cas par le modèle du Traitement adaptatif de l’information. Les expériences de vie précoces sont considérées comme étant à la base de la pathologie et utilisées comme cibles pour le retraitement. Le protocole à trois temps comprend le retraitement d’événements passés qui ont créé les fondations de la pathologie, des déclencheurs actuels et des scénarios-types pour un fonctionnement futur adapté afin de traiter les déficits de compétences et développementaux.

Shapiro F. (dir.), EMDR for Trauma : Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, American Psychological Association, « Psychotherapy Videotape », séries II.

Shapiro, F. (2012). EMDR therapy: An overview of current and future research. European Review of Applied Psychology, 62, 193-195.

  • English abstract : Research findings indicate that EMDR therapy and TF-CBT are based on different mechanisms of action in that EMDR therapy does not necessitate daily homework, sustained arousal or detailed descriptions of the event, and appears to take fewer sessions. EMDR is guided by the adaptive information processing model, which posits a wide range of adverse life experiences as the basis of pathology.

Shapiro, F. (2014). The role of eye movement desensitization & reprocessing (EMDR) therapy in medicine: Addressing the psychological and physical symptoms stemming from adverse life experiences. The Permanente Journal, 18, 71-77.

  • An overview of the substantial body of research demonstrating that adverse life experiences contribute to both psychological and biomedical pathology, as well as the research demonstrating the clinical effects of EMDR therapy as guided by the Adaptive Information Processing model.

Shapiro F. & Maxfield L. (2002), « Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) », in M. Hersen, & W. Sledge (dir.), Encyclopedia of Psychotherapy, New York, Elsevier Science, vol. 1, p. 777-785.

  • Abstract en français : La thérapie EMDR est une forme de thérapie, en huit phases, qui rassemble certains aspects de tous les grands courants de la psychologie. Elle a été validée par des recherches contrôlées, qui ont établi son efficacité dans le traitement du syndrome de stress post-traumatique.

Shapiro, F., Kaslow, F., Maxfield, L. (Eds.) (2007). Handbook of EMDR and Family Therapy Processes. New York: Wiley.

  • English abstract : Using an Adaptive Information Processing conceptualization a wide range of family problems and impasses can be addressed through the integration of EMDR and family therapy techniques.  Family therapy models are also useful for identifying the targets in need of processing for those engaged in individual therapy.
  • Abstract en français : L’utilisation d’une conceptualisation basée sur le Traitement adaptatif de l’information permet de traiter une vaste gamme de problèmes familiaux et de leurs impasses grâce à l’intégration de l’EMDR et de techniques de thérapie familiale. Les modèles de thérapie familiale sont aussi utiles pour identifier les cibles nécessitant un retraitement chez les personnes engagées dans une thérapie individuelle.

Simhandl, C., Radua, J., König, B., & Amann, B. L. (2014). The prevalence and effect of life Events in 222 bipolar I and II patients: A prospective, naturalistic 4 year follow-up study. Journal of Affective Disorders.

  • Our data suggest a high and continuous number of life events prior to affective episodes. Life events after the index episode worsened the course of bipolar I patients with more depressive episodes. This underlines the importance of detection and treatment of emerging life events.

Solomon, R. & Shapiro, F, (2008).  EMDR and the adaptive information processing model: Potential mechanisms of change. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2, 315-325.

  • English abstract : This article provides a brief overview of some of the major precepts of the Adaptive Information Processing model, a comparison and contrast to extinction-based information processing models and treatment and a discussion of a variety of mechanisms of action.

Teicher, M.H. . Samson, J.A., Sheu, Y-S, Polcari, A. & McGreenery, C.E. (2010). Hurtful words: Association of exposure to peer verbal abuse with elevated psychiatric symptom scores and corpus callosum abnormalities. Am J Psychiatry, 167, 1464 – 1471.

  • English abstract : These findings parallel re­sults of previous reports of psychopathol­ogy associated with childhood exposure to parental verbal abuse and support the hypothesis that exposure to peer verbal abuse is an aversive stimulus associated with greater symptom ratings and mean­ingful alterations in brain structure.

Uribe, M. E. R., & Ramirez, E. O. L. (2006). The effect of EMDR therapy on the negative information processing on patients who suffer depression. Revista Electrónica de Motivación y Emoción (REME), 9, 23-24.

  • English abstract : The study evaluated the impact of EMDR treatment on bias mechanisms in depressed subjects in regard to negative emotional valence evaluation. “The results indicated that it generated important cognitive emotional changes in such mechanisms.”  Priming tests indicated changes in the negative valence evaluation of emotional information indicative of recovery with decreased reaction times in the neutral and positive stimuli processing.”

van den Berg, D.P.G. & van den Gaag, M. (2012). Treating trauma in psychosis with EMDR: A pilot study. Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 43, 664-671.

  • English abstract : This pilot study shows that a short EMDR therapy is effective and safe in the treatment of PTSD in subjects with a psychotic disorder. Treatment of PTSD has a positive effect on auditory verbal hallucinations, delusions, anxiety symptoms, depression symptoms, and self-esteem.

Varese, F., Smeets, F., Drukker, M., Lieverse, R., Lataster, T., Viechtbauer, W., et al. (2012). Childhood adversities increase the risk of psychosis: A meta-analysis of patient-control, prospective- and cross-sectional cohort studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 38 (4), 661-671.

  • English abstract : These findings indicate that childhood adversity is strongly associated with increased risk for psychosis.

Wesselmann, D. & Potter, A. E. (2009)Change in adult attachment status following treatment with EMDR: Three case studies. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3, 178-191.

  • English abstract : Subsequent to EMDR treatment “all three patients made positive changes in attachment status as measured by the [Adult Attachment Inventory], and all three reported positive changes in emotions and relationships.”

Wilensky, M. (2006). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) as a treatment for phantom limb pain. Journal of Brief Therapy, 5, 31-44.

  • English abstract : Five consecutive cases of phantom limb pain were treated with EMDR. Four of the five clients completed the prescribed treatment and reported that pain was completely eliminated, or reduced to a negligible level. . . The standard EMDR treatment protocol was used to target the accident that caused the amputation, and other related events.
  • Abstract en français : Cinq cas consécutifs de douleur du membre fantôme ont été traités en EMDR. Quatre des cinq clients ont complété le traitement prescrit et ont rapporté que la douleur avait été complètement supprimée ou réduite à un niveau négligeable. Le protocole de traitement EMDR standard a été utilisé pour cibler l’accident qui a provoqué l’amputation ainsi que d’autres événements associés.


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